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Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits.
J Anal Toxicol 2015; 39(2):144-51JA

Abstract

The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), β-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, α-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover AFB, DE, USA laura.e.regester.ctr@mail.mil.Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover AFB, DE, USA.Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover AFB, DE, USA.Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover AFB, DE, USA.Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover AFB, DE, USA.Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Dover AFB, DE, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25492523

Citation

Regester, Laura E., et al. "Determination of Designer Drug Cross-reactivity On Five Commercial Immunoassay Screening Kits." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 39, no. 2, 2015, pp. 144-51.
Regester LE, Chmiel JD, Holler JM, et al. Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits. J Anal Toxicol. 2015;39(2):144-51.
Regester, L. E., Chmiel, J. D., Holler, J. M., Vorce, S. P., Levine, B., & Bosy, T. Z. (2015). Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 39(2), pp. 144-51. doi:10.1093/jat/bku133.
Regester LE, et al. Determination of Designer Drug Cross-reactivity On Five Commercial Immunoassay Screening Kits. J Anal Toxicol. 2015;39(2):144-51. PubMed PMID: 25492523.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of designer drug cross-reactivity on five commercial immunoassay screening kits. AU - Regester,Laura E, AU - Chmiel,Jeffrey D, AU - Holler,Justin M, AU - Vorce,Shawn P, AU - Levine,Barry, AU - Bosy,Thomas Z, Y1 - 2014/12/09/ PY - 2014/12/11/entrez PY - 2014/12/11/pubmed PY - 2016/4/28/medline SP - 144 EP - 51 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 39 IS - 2 N2 - The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories. Cross-reactivity of compounds with immunoassay kits can either aid or complicate the detection of a variety of drug and drug metabolites. For instance, emerging designer drugs that share structural similarities to amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP) have the potential to cross-react with assays designed to detect these compounds. This study evaluates the cross-reactivity of five commercially available immunoassay reagent kits for 94 designer drugs on a Roche/Hitachi Modular P automated screening instrument. The compounds used in this study are grouped by structural class as follows: 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamines, 2C (2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines), β-keto amphetamines, substituted amphetamines, piperazines, α-pyrrolidinopropiophenones, tryptamines and PCP analogs. A drug concentration of 100 µg/mL was used to determine cross-reactivity for each assay and resulted in the following positive rates: Microgenics DRI(®) Ecstasy enzyme assay (19%), Microgenics DRI(®) Phencyclidine enzyme assay (20%), Lin-Zhi Methamphetamine enzyme immunoassay (39%), Siemens/Syva(®) EMIT(®)II Plus Amphetamines assay (43%) and CEDIA(®) DAU Amphetamine/Ecstasy assay (57%). Of the 94 designer drugs tested, 14% produced a negative response for all five kits. No designer drug used in this study generated a positive result for all five immunoassay kits. SN - 1945-2403 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25492523/Determination_of_designer_drug_cross_reactivity_on_five_commercial_immunoassay_screening_kits_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/bku133 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -