Mogamulizumab and the treatment of CCR4-positive T-cell lymphomas.Immunotherapy 2014; 6(11):1187-206I
Glyco-engineering has been developed to enhance the pharmacological properties of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) resulting in superior immune effector function. Mogamulizumab is the first approved glyco-engineered therapeutic antibody and first approved mAb to target the CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). CCR4 is principally expressed on Tregs and helper T cells (Th) where it functions to induce homing of these leukocytes to sites of inflammation. Tregs play an essential role in maintaining immune balance; however, in malignancy, Tregs impair host antitumor immunity and provide a favorable environment for tumors to grow. CCR4 is highly expressed by aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), particularly adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). Mogamulizumab is a humanized anti-CCR4 mAb with a defucosylated Fc region that enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, mogamulizumab depletes CCR4(+) Tregs, potentially evoking antitumor immune responses by autologous effector cells. This ability is highly pertinent as subsets of malignant T cells are believed to function as CD4(+) Tregs, overexpressing CCR4. Clinical trials with mogamulizumab have demonstrated clinical efficacy and tolerability for the treatment of relapsed/refractory aggressive T-cell lymphomas, previously associated with very poor outcomes.