Hereditary and common familial colorectal cancer: evidence for colorectal screening.Dig Dis Sci. 2015 Mar; 60(3):734-47.DD
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer among men and women. Between 3 and 6% of all CRCs are attributed to well-defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis and several hamartomatous conditions. Up to 30% of CRC cases exhibit common familial risk, likely related to a combination of inherited factors and environment. Identification of these patients through family history and appropriate genetic testing can provide estimates of cancer risk that inform appropriate cancer screening, surveillance and/or preventative interventions. This article examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetic basis, clinical management and evidence supporting colorectal screening. It also deals with the category of common (non-syndromic) familial risk including risk determination and screening guidelines.