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Effects of high vs low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate on cardiovascular disease risk factors and insulin sensitivity: the OmniCarb randomized clinical trial.
JAMA 2014; 312(23):2531-41JAMA

Abstract

IMPORTANCE

Foods that have similar carbohydrate content can differ in the amount they raise blood glucose. The effects of this property, called the glycemic index, on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes are not well understood.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of glycemic index and amount of total dietary carbohydrate on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Randomized crossover-controlled feeding trial conducted in research units in academic medical centers, in which 163 overweight adults (systolic blood pressure, 120-159 mm Hg) were given 4 complete diets that contained all of their meals, snacks, and calorie-containing beverages, each for 5 weeks, and completed at least 2 study diets. The first participant was enrolled April 1, 2008; the last participant finished December 22, 2010. For any pair of the 4 diets, there were 135 to 150 participants contributing at least 1 primary outcome measure.

INTERVENTIONS

(1) A high-glycemic index (65% on the glucose scale), high-carbohydrate diet (58% energy); (2) a low-glycemic index (40%), high-carbohydrate diet; (3) a high-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet (40% energy); and (4) a low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet. Each diet was based on a healthful DASH-type diet.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

The 5 primary outcomes were insulin sensitivity, determined from the areas under the curves of glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test; levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides; and systolic blood pressure.

RESULTS

At high dietary carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level decreased insulin sensitivity from 8.9 to 7.1 units (-20%, P = .002); increased LDL cholesterol from 139 to 147 mg/dL (6%, P ≤ .001); and did not affect levels of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood pressure. At low carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level did not affect the outcomes except for decreasing triglycerides from 91 to 86 mg/dL (-5%, P = .02). In the primary diet contrast, the low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet, compared with the high-glycemic index, high-carbohydrate diet, did not affect insulin sensitivity, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, or HDL cholesterol but did lower triglycerides from 111 to 86 mg/dL (-23%, P ≤ .001).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

In this 5-week controlled feeding study, diets with low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate, compared with high glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate, did not result in improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, or systolic blood pressure. In the context of an overall DASH-type diet, using glycemic index to select specific foods may not improve cardiovascular risk factors or insulin resistance.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00608049.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts2Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland7Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego.Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland5Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland4Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland5Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopk.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.Center for Clinical Investigation, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.Center for Clinical Investigation, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland4Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland5Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25514303

Citation

Sacks, Frank M., et al. "Effects of High Vs Low Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate On Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity: the OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial." JAMA, vol. 312, no. 23, 2014, pp. 2531-41.
Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Anderson CA, et al. Effects of high vs low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate on cardiovascular disease risk factors and insulin sensitivity: the OmniCarb randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;312(23):2531-41.
Sacks, F. M., Carey, V. J., Anderson, C. A., Miller, E. R., Copeland, T., Charleston, J., ... Appel, L. J. (2014). Effects of high vs low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate on cardiovascular disease risk factors and insulin sensitivity: the OmniCarb randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 312(23), pp. 2531-41. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.16658.
Sacks FM, et al. Effects of High Vs Low Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate On Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity: the OmniCarb Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2014 Dec 17;312(23):2531-41. PubMed PMID: 25514303.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of high vs low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate on cardiovascular disease risk factors and insulin sensitivity: the OmniCarb randomized clinical trial. AU - Sacks,Frank M, AU - Carey,Vincent J, AU - Anderson,Cheryl A M, AU - Miller,Edgar R,3rd AU - Copeland,Trisha, AU - Charleston,Jeanne, AU - Harshfield,Benjamin J, AU - Laranjo,Nancy, AU - McCarron,Phyllis, AU - Swain,Janis, AU - White,Karen, AU - Yee,Karen, AU - Appel,Lawrence J, PY - 2014/12/17/entrez PY - 2014/12/17/pubmed PY - 2014/12/24/medline SP - 2531 EP - 41 JF - JAMA JO - JAMA VL - 312 IS - 23 N2 - IMPORTANCE: Foods that have similar carbohydrate content can differ in the amount they raise blood glucose. The effects of this property, called the glycemic index, on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of glycemic index and amount of total dietary carbohydrate on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized crossover-controlled feeding trial conducted in research units in academic medical centers, in which 163 overweight adults (systolic blood pressure, 120-159 mm Hg) were given 4 complete diets that contained all of their meals, snacks, and calorie-containing beverages, each for 5 weeks, and completed at least 2 study diets. The first participant was enrolled April 1, 2008; the last participant finished December 22, 2010. For any pair of the 4 diets, there were 135 to 150 participants contributing at least 1 primary outcome measure. INTERVENTIONS: (1) A high-glycemic index (65% on the glucose scale), high-carbohydrate diet (58% energy); (2) a low-glycemic index (40%), high-carbohydrate diet; (3) a high-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet (40% energy); and (4) a low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet. Each diet was based on a healthful DASH-type diet. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The 5 primary outcomes were insulin sensitivity, determined from the areas under the curves of glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test; levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides; and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: At high dietary carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level decreased insulin sensitivity from 8.9 to 7.1 units (-20%, P = .002); increased LDL cholesterol from 139 to 147 mg/dL (6%, P ≤ .001); and did not affect levels of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood pressure. At low carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level did not affect the outcomes except for decreasing triglycerides from 91 to 86 mg/dL (-5%, P = .02). In the primary diet contrast, the low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet, compared with the high-glycemic index, high-carbohydrate diet, did not affect insulin sensitivity, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, or HDL cholesterol but did lower triglycerides from 111 to 86 mg/dL (-23%, P ≤ .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this 5-week controlled feeding study, diets with low glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate, compared with high glycemic index of dietary carbohydrate, did not result in improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, or systolic blood pressure. In the context of an overall DASH-type diet, using glycemic index to select specific foods may not improve cardiovascular risk factors or insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00608049. SN - 1538-3598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25514303/Effects_of_high_vs_low_glycemic_index_of_dietary_carbohydrate_on_cardiovascular_disease_risk_factors_and_insulin_sensitivity:_the_OmniCarb_randomized_clinical_trial_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/10.1001/jama.2014.16658 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -