[Characteristics and sources of organic carbon and elemental carbon in PM2.5 in Shanghai urban area].Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2014 Sep; 35(9):3263-70.HJ
Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 samples collected in Shanghai urban area during June 2010 to May 2011 were analyzed with IMPROVE-TOR protocol. The results showed that the annual average concentrations of OC and EC in PM2.5 were 8.6 μg.m-3 ± 6.2 μg.m-3 and 2.4 μg.m-3 ± 1.3 μg.m-3 respectively, accounting for 20% of PM2.5 mass concentration. The seasonal average concentrations of OC and EC were highest in winter and lowest in summer. And the percentages of OC and EC in PM2.5 were highest in autumn. The annual average OC/EC ratio was 3. 54 ± 1. 14. The concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) were evaluated by the minimum OC/EC ratio method and the annual average concentration of SOC was 3.9 μg.m(-3) ±4.2 μg.m(-3), accounting for 38.9% of OC. In summer, the concentrations of SOC were relatively low and were correlated well with the maximum hourly concentrations of ozone, which indicated that the photochemical reaction was an important way of SOC formation. In autumn and winter when the west wind direction was predominant, the concentrations of SOC were higher than that in windless condition, which meant the transportation of SOC. The carbonaceous components were associated with source contributions using the principal component analysis (PCA) with eight thermally-derived carbon fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, EC1, EC2, EC3 and OPC. Motor vehicle, coal-fired units, biomass burning and road dust were four main sources of OC and EC in PM2.5 in Shanghai urban area, which contributing 69. 8% - 81. 4% of carbonaceous aerosols. The contribution of motor vehicle was high throughout the year. Biomass burning contributed about 15% -20% of OC and EC. The influence of road dust was relatively obvious in spring and autumn. And the contribution of coal-fired units was higher in winter than those in other seasons.