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Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dairy product and calcium intakes have been associated with increased prostate cancer risk, but whether specific dairy products or calcium sources are associated with risk is unclear.

OBJECTIVE

In the Continuous Update Project, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies on intakes of dairy products and calcium and prostate cancer risk.

DESIGN

PubMed and several other databases were searched up to April 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by using a random-effects model.

RESULTS

Thirty-two studies were included. Intakes of total dairy products [summary RR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; n = 15) per 400 g/d], total milk [summary RR: 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; n = 14) per 200 g/d], low-fat milk [summary RR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11; n = 6) per 200 g/d], cheese [summary RR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; n = 11) per 50 g/d], and dietary calcium [summary RR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09; n = 15) per 400 mg/d] were associated with increased total prostate cancer risk. Total calcium and dairy calcium intakes, but not nondairy calcium or supplemental calcium intakes, were also positively associated with total prostate cancer risk. Supplemental calcium was associated with increased risk of fatal prostate cancer.

CONCLUSIONS

High intakes of dairy products, milk, low-fat milk, cheese, and total, dietary, and dairy calcium, but not supplemental or nondairy calcium, may increase total prostate cancer risk. The diverging results for types of dairy products and sources of calcium suggest that other components of dairy rather than fat and calcium may increase prostate cancer risk. Any additional studies should report detailed results for subtypes of prostate cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    ,

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (DA and LJV); the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United, Kingdom (DA, DANR, DSMC, ARV, RV, and TN); and the Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom (DCG).

    Source

    MeSH

    Calcium, Dietary
    Cohort Studies
    Dairy Products
    Dietary Supplements
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Prospective Studies
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25527754

    Citation

    Aune, Dagfinn, et al. "Dairy Products, Calcium, and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 101, no. 1, 2015, pp. 87-117.
    Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):87-117.
    Aune, D., Navarro Rosenblatt, D. A., Chan, D. S., Vieira, A. R., Vieira, R., Greenwood, D. C., ... Norat, T. (2015). Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(1), pp. 87-117. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.067157.
    Aune D, et al. Dairy Products, Calcium, and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):87-117. PubMed PMID: 25527754.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. AU - Aune,Dagfinn, AU - Navarro Rosenblatt,Deborah A, AU - Chan,Doris S M, AU - Vieira,Ana Rita, AU - Vieira,Rui, AU - Greenwood,Darren C, AU - Vatten,Lars J, AU - Norat,Teresa, Y1 - 2014/11/19/ PY - 2014/12/21/entrez PY - 2014/12/21/pubmed PY - 2015/2/19/medline KW - WCRF/AICR Continuous Update Project KW - calcium KW - dairy products KW - milk KW - prostate cancer SP - 87 EP - 117 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 101 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dairy product and calcium intakes have been associated with increased prostate cancer risk, but whether specific dairy products or calcium sources are associated with risk is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In the Continuous Update Project, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies on intakes of dairy products and calcium and prostate cancer risk. DESIGN: PubMed and several other databases were searched up to April 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included. Intakes of total dairy products [summary RR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; n = 15) per 400 g/d], total milk [summary RR: 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; n = 14) per 200 g/d], low-fat milk [summary RR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11; n = 6) per 200 g/d], cheese [summary RR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; n = 11) per 50 g/d], and dietary calcium [summary RR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09; n = 15) per 400 mg/d] were associated with increased total prostate cancer risk. Total calcium and dairy calcium intakes, but not nondairy calcium or supplemental calcium intakes, were also positively associated with total prostate cancer risk. Supplemental calcium was associated with increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High intakes of dairy products, milk, low-fat milk, cheese, and total, dietary, and dairy calcium, but not supplemental or nondairy calcium, may increase total prostate cancer risk. The diverging results for types of dairy products and sources of calcium suggest that other components of dairy rather than fat and calcium may increase prostate cancer risk. Any additional studies should report detailed results for subtypes of prostate cancer. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25527754/Dairy_products_calcium_and_prostate_cancer_risk:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_of_cohort_studies_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.067157 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -