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Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

High calcium intake has been associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade prostate cancer. Several studies have found a positive association between phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated the joint association between calcium and phosphorus and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with a focus on lethal and high-grade disease.

DESIGN

In total, 47,885 men in the cohort reported diet data in 1986 and every 4 y thereafter. From 1986 to 2010, 5861 cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 789 lethal cancers (fatal or metastatic). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer, with adjustment for potential confounding.

RESULTS

Calcium intakes >2000 mg/d were associated with greater risk of total prostate cancer and lethal and high-grade cancers. These associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when phosphorus intake was adjusted for. Phosphorus intake was associated with greater risk of total, lethal, and high-grade cancers, independent of calcium and intakes of red meat, white meat, dairy, and fish. In latency analysis, calcium and phosphorus had independent effects for different time periods between exposure and diagnosis. Calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 12-16 y after exposure, whereas high phosphorus was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 0-8 y after exposure.

CONCLUSIONS

Phosphorus is independently associated with risk of lethal and high-grade prostate cancer. Calcium may not have a strong independent effect on prostate cancer risk except with long latency periods.

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    ,

    From the Departments of Epidemiology (KMW, IMS, LAM, and EG) and Nutrition (EG), Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (KMW, LAM, and EG).

    ,

    From the Departments of Epidemiology (KMW, IMS, LAM, and EG) and Nutrition (EG), Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (KMW, LAM, and EG).

    ,

    From the Departments of Epidemiology (KMW, IMS, LAM, and EG) and Nutrition (EG), Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (KMW, LAM, and EG).

    From the Departments of Epidemiology (KMW, IMS, LAM, and EG) and Nutrition (EG), Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (KMW, LAM, and EG).

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Calcium, Dietary
    Cohort Studies
    Dairy Products
    Dietary Supplements
    Follow-Up Studies
    Health Personnel
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Neoplasm Grading
    Neoplasm Staging
    Phosphorus, Dietary
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Prostate
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25527761

    Citation

    Wilson, Kathryn M., et al. "Calcium and Phosphorus Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a 24-y Follow-up Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 101, no. 1, 2015, pp. 173-83.
    Wilson KM, Shui IM, Mucci LA, et al. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):173-83.
    Wilson, K. M., Shui, I. M., Mucci, L. A., & Giovannucci, E. (2015). Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(1), pp. 173-83. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.088716.
    Wilson KM, et al. Calcium and Phosphorus Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a 24-y Follow-up Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):173-83. PubMed PMID: 25527761.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study. AU - Wilson,Kathryn M, AU - Shui,Irene M, AU - Mucci,Lorelei A, AU - Giovannucci,Edward, Y1 - 2014/11/19/ PY - 2014/12/21/entrez PY - 2014/12/21/pubmed PY - 2015/2/19/medline KW - calcium KW - diet KW - epidemiology KW - fatal prostate cancer KW - high-grade prostate cancer KW - nutritional epidemiology KW - phosphorus KW - prostate cancer SP - 173 EP - 83 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 101 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: High calcium intake has been associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade prostate cancer. Several studies have found a positive association between phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the joint association between calcium and phosphorus and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with a focus on lethal and high-grade disease. DESIGN: In total, 47,885 men in the cohort reported diet data in 1986 and every 4 y thereafter. From 1986 to 2010, 5861 cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 789 lethal cancers (fatal or metastatic). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer, with adjustment for potential confounding. RESULTS: Calcium intakes >2000 mg/d were associated with greater risk of total prostate cancer and lethal and high-grade cancers. These associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when phosphorus intake was adjusted for. Phosphorus intake was associated with greater risk of total, lethal, and high-grade cancers, independent of calcium and intakes of red meat, white meat, dairy, and fish. In latency analysis, calcium and phosphorus had independent effects for different time periods between exposure and diagnosis. Calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 12-16 y after exposure, whereas high phosphorus was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 0-8 y after exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphorus is independently associated with risk of lethal and high-grade prostate cancer. Calcium may not have a strong independent effect on prostate cancer risk except with long latency periods. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25527761/Calcium_and_phosphorus_intake_and_prostate_cancer_risk:_a_24_y_follow_up_study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.088716 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -