Combination of retinyl palmitate and UV-filters: phototoxic risk assessment based on photostability and in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity assays.Eur J Pharm Sci. 2015 Feb 20; 68:127-36.EJ
This study aimed to assess the phototoxic potential of combined UV-filters and retinyl palmitate (RP) in the presence or not of bemotrizinol (BMTZ), employing photostability and in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity assays. The formulations tested contained octocrylene (OCT), octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), benzophenone-3 (BZP-3) and RP (photostable) or octocrylene (OCT), octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVO) and RP (less photostable). Both formulations were supplemented with bemotrizinol. Photostability was evaluated by exposing, or not, formulations spread on a glass plate to UVA/UVB irradiation. The resulting products were quantified by HPLC analysis. In vitro phototoxicity of UV-filters and combinations were evaluated using 3T3 viable monolayer fibroblast cultures submitted, or not, to irradiation according to OECD TG 432. In vivo photoallergy and photoxicity were assessed by clinical studies (photopatch test). Photostability assays showed that UV-filter bemotrizinol was a better photostabilizer for RP/benzophenone-3 than for RP/avobenzone. The in vitro phototoxicity of the combination RP/avobenzone was reduced by bemotrizinol. Clinical studies did not indicate phototoxic or photoallergenic potentials in all formulations tested. It is concluded that the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test may be considered a supplementary assay in formulation developments, since it can detect chemically unstable and potentially phototoxic combinations. However, extrapolation of in vitro positive results to human photopatch tests may be performed only to a limited extent.