Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients Undergoing Elective Spine Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.World Neurosurg. 2015 Jun; 83(6):1114-9.WN
Decreased bone density secondary to osteoporosis and osteomalacia represents a significant risk factor for bony fracture and spinal instrumentation failure. We evaluated the incidence of vitamin D deficiency in patients undergoing elective spinal instrumentation to investigate which patient-level risk factors are associated with deficient vitamin D levels.
Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were evaluated postoperatively (<72 hours) in patients undergoing elective spinal fusion from 2011 through 2012. Patients >18 years with a diagnosis of degenerative spinal spondylosis or spinal instability treated with spinal fusion were included. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) were analyzed using univariate and multiple logistic regression to identify independent predictors of deficiency.
The mean preoperative neck and Oswestry disability indexes of the 230 consecutive patients (mean, 57 ± 13.9 years) were 21.0 ± 9.8 and 22.2 ± 8.5, respectively. Mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 25.9 ± 12.4 ng/mL (range, 6-77 ng/mL). Sixty-nine (30.0%) patients had laboratory-confirmed vitamin D deficiency and 89 (38.9%) had laboratory-confirmed vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL). The risk of vitamin D deficiency was greater in men (odds ratio [OR] 2.53; P = 0.009), patients aged 40-60 years (OR 2.45; P = 0.018), and those who had body mass index >40 (OR 7.55; P = 0.004), an existing diagnosis of diabetes (OR 3.29; P = 0.019), or no vitamin D supplementation (OR 4.96; P = 0.043).
Vitamin D deficiency was common in patients with degenerative spondylosis undergoing spinal fusion. Middle-aged patients, men, the morbidly obese, those with a history of diabetes, and those with no history of supplementation had a higher incidence of vitamin D deficiency.