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Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows.

RESULTS

The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD) = 6.06) in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61) and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83). Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.09) and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59) were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION

The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

    ,

    Department of Emergency Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

    Department of Community Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

    Source

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25538776

    Citation

    Domeneh, Behrooz Hashemi, et al. "Blood Lead Level in Opium Dependents and Its Association With Anemia: a Cross-sectional Study From the Capital of Iran." Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, vol. 19, no. 10, 2014, pp. 939-43.
    Domeneh BH, Tavakoli N, Jafari N. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(10):939-43.
    Domeneh, B. H., Tavakoli, N., & Jafari, N. (2014). Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 19(10), pp. 939-43.
    Domeneh BH, Tavakoli N, Jafari N. Blood Lead Level in Opium Dependents and Its Association With Anemia: a Cross-sectional Study From the Capital of Iran. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(10):939-43. PubMed PMID: 25538776.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran. AU - Domeneh,Behrooz Hashemi, AU - Tavakoli,Nader, AU - Jafari,Najmeh, PY - 2013/05/02/received PY - 2013/11/27/revised PY - 2014/03/05/accepted PY - 2014/12/25/entrez PY - 2014/12/30/pubmed PY - 2014/12/30/medline KW - Anemia KW - Iran KW - blood lead level KW - opium dependent SP - 939 EP - 43 JF - Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences JO - J Res Med Sci VL - 19 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. RESULTS: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD) = 6.06) in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61) and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83). Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.09) and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59) were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption. SN - 1735-1995 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25538776/Blood_lead_level_in_opium_dependents_and_its_association_with_anemia:_A_cross_sectional_study_from_the_capital_of_Iran_ L2 - http://www.jmsjournal.net/article.asp?issn=1735-1995;year=2014;volume=19;issue=10;spage=939;epage=943;aulast=Domeneh DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -