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Greenhouse gas emission of diets in the Netherlands and associations with food, energy and macronutrient intakes.
Public Health Nutr 2015; 18(13):2433-45PH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) of diets in Dutch girls, boys, women and men and to explore associations with diet composition.

DESIGN

Descriptive analyses for the total population as well as stratified for gender, age and dietary environmental load.

SETTING

The Netherlands.

SUBJECTS

Dutch children and adults aged 7-69 years (n 3818).

RESULTS

The GHGE of daily diets was on average 3·2 kg CO2-equivalents (CO2e) for girls, 3·6 kg CO2e for boys, 3·7 kg CO2e for women and 4·8 kg CO2e for men. Meat and cheese contributed about 40 % and drinks (including milk and alcoholic drinks) 20 % to daily GHGE. Considerable differences in environmental loads of diets existed within age and gender groups. Persons with higher-GHGE diets consumed more (in quantity of foods and especially drinks) than their counterparts of a similar sex and age with low-GHGE diets. Major differences between high- and low-GHGE diets were in meat, cheese and dairy consumption as well as in soft drinks (girls, boys and women) and alcoholic drinks (men). Of those, differences in meat consumption determined the differences in GHGE most. Diets with higher GHGE were associated with higher saturated fat intake and lower fibre intake

CONCLUSIONS

GHGE of daily diets in the Netherlands is between 3 and 5 kg CO2e, with considerable differences between individuals. Meat, dairy and drinks contribute most to GHGE. The insights of the study may be used in developing (age- and gender-specific) food-based dietary guidelines that take into account both health and sustainability aspects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),PO Box 1,3720 BA Bilthoven,The Netherlands.1National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),PO Box 1,3720 BA Bilthoven,The Netherlands.2Blonk Consultants,Gouda,The Netherlands.1National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),PO Box 1,3720 BA Bilthoven,The Netherlands.1National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),PO Box 1,3720 BA Bilthoven,The Netherlands.2Blonk Consultants,Gouda,The Netherlands.1National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM),PO Box 1,3720 BA Bilthoven,The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25543460

Citation

Temme, Elisabeth H M., et al. "Greenhouse Gas Emission of Diets in the Netherlands and Associations With Food, Energy and Macronutrient Intakes." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 18, no. 13, 2015, pp. 2433-45.
Temme EH, Toxopeus IB, Kramer GF, et al. Greenhouse gas emission of diets in the Netherlands and associations with food, energy and macronutrient intakes. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(13):2433-45.
Temme, E. H., Toxopeus, I. B., Kramer, G. F., Brosens, M. C., Drijvers, J. M., Tyszler, M., & Ocké, M. C. (2015). Greenhouse gas emission of diets in the Netherlands and associations with food, energy and macronutrient intakes. Public Health Nutrition, 18(13), pp. 2433-45. doi:10.1017/S1368980014002821.
Temme EH, et al. Greenhouse Gas Emission of Diets in the Netherlands and Associations With Food, Energy and Macronutrient Intakes. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(13):2433-45. PubMed PMID: 25543460.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Greenhouse gas emission of diets in the Netherlands and associations with food, energy and macronutrient intakes. AU - Temme,Elisabeth H M, AU - Toxopeus,Ido B, AU - Kramer,Gerard F H, AU - Brosens,Marinka C C, AU - Drijvers,José M M, AU - Tyszler,Marcelo, AU - Ocké,Marga C, Y1 - 2014/12/29/ PY - 2014/12/30/entrez PY - 2014/12/30/pubmed PY - 2016/6/9/medline KW - Food consumption KW - Greenhouse gas emissions KW - Nutrients KW - Sustainability SP - 2433 EP - 45 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 18 IS - 13 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) of diets in Dutch girls, boys, women and men and to explore associations with diet composition. DESIGN: Descriptive analyses for the total population as well as stratified for gender, age and dietary environmental load. SETTING: The Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Dutch children and adults aged 7-69 years (n 3818). RESULTS: The GHGE of daily diets was on average 3·2 kg CO2-equivalents (CO2e) for girls, 3·6 kg CO2e for boys, 3·7 kg CO2e for women and 4·8 kg CO2e for men. Meat and cheese contributed about 40 % and drinks (including milk and alcoholic drinks) 20 % to daily GHGE. Considerable differences in environmental loads of diets existed within age and gender groups. Persons with higher-GHGE diets consumed more (in quantity of foods and especially drinks) than their counterparts of a similar sex and age with low-GHGE diets. Major differences between high- and low-GHGE diets were in meat, cheese and dairy consumption as well as in soft drinks (girls, boys and women) and alcoholic drinks (men). Of those, differences in meat consumption determined the differences in GHGE most. Diets with higher GHGE were associated with higher saturated fat intake and lower fibre intake CONCLUSIONS: GHGE of daily diets in the Netherlands is between 3 and 5 kg CO2e, with considerable differences between individuals. Meat, dairy and drinks contribute most to GHGE. The insights of the study may be used in developing (age- and gender-specific) food-based dietary guidelines that take into account both health and sustainability aspects. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25543460/Greenhouse_gas_emission_of_diets_in_the_Netherlands_and_associations_with_food_energy_and_macronutrient_intakes_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980014002821/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -