A three-dimensional evaluation of Māori and New Zealand European faces.Aust Orthod J. 2014 Nov; 30(2):169-75.AO
Māori patients are often inappropriately treated using Caucasian norms, despite obvious differences in facial morphology. There is currently very little data concerning the nature and/or magnitude of these differences in facial features. The objective of the present study was therefore to evaluate the facial features of Māori and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans.
Two convenience samples of 30 Māori and 30 NZ Europeans, evenly matched for age and gender, were recruited from amongst students of the University of Otago, New Zealand. Using a 3D white-light scanner, 12 facial scans were taken of each participant, which were then merged to form a single 3D image of the face. Prior to scanning, round markers were fixed to the skin in order to facilitate the localisation of facial anthropometric points and from which vertical, sagittal, and transverse measurements were assessed from the 3D facial image. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance were used to test for differences between the two groups before and after adjusting for body mass index (BMI).
Significant differences were found in vertical, sagittal, and transverse facial dimensions, before and after adjusting for BMI. The overall face of Māori was significantly larger than that of NZ Europeans, although the facial proportions were generally similar. However, Māori had a broader face, more anterior position of the chin and reduced facial convexity in comparison with NZ Europeans (p < 0.01).
Māori have markedly different sagittal facial features compared with NZ Europeans. These distinctive features may reflect important differences in environmental and genetic influences between the two populations. The findings from the present study may assist the clinician in the treatment planning and assessment of facial dysmorphology in these ethnic groups.