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Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 01; 147:68-75.DA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

DESIGN

Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums.

RESULTS

Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: Jean-Francois.Etter@unige.ch.Center for the Study of Tobacco Products, Dept. of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25561385

Citation

Etter, Jean-François, and Thomas Eissenberg. "Dependence Levels in Users of Electronic Cigarettes, Nicotine Gums and Tobacco Cigarettes." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 147, 2015, pp. 68-75.
Etter JF, Eissenberg T. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;147:68-75.
Etter, J. F., & Eissenberg, T. (2015). Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 147, 68-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.007
Etter JF, Eissenberg T. Dependence Levels in Users of Electronic Cigarettes, Nicotine Gums and Tobacco Cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 1;147:68-75. PubMed PMID: 25561385.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. AU - Etter,Jean-François, AU - Eissenberg,Thomas, Y1 - 2014/12/18/ PY - 2014/08/28/received PY - 2014/12/09/revised PY - 2014/12/10/accepted PY - 2015/1/7/entrez PY - 2015/1/7/pubmed PY - 2015/12/19/medline KW - Addiction KW - Dependence KW - Electronic cigarette KW - Electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) KW - Nicotine KW - Smoking SP - 68 EP - 75 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 147 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. DESIGN: Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. RESULTS: Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25561385/Dependence_levels_in_users_of_electronic_cigarettes_nicotine_gums_and_tobacco_cigarettes_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(14)01986-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -