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The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time.
J Anim Sci. 2015 Jan; 93(1):247-57.JA

Abstract

The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 ± 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not translate into improved belly firmness, depth, weight, or fat color.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames 50011.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames 50011.Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames 50011 jfp@iastate.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25568373

Citation

Kellner, T A., et al. "The Impact of Dietary Fat Withdrawal On Carcass Iodine Value, Belly Characteristics, and Changes in Body Fat Over Time." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 93, no. 1, 2015, pp. 247-57.
Kellner TA, Prusa KJ, Patience JF. The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time. J Anim Sci. 2015;93(1):247-57.
Kellner, T. A., Prusa, K. J., & Patience, J. F. (2015). The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time. Journal of Animal Science, 93(1), 247-57. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-7650
Kellner TA, Prusa KJ, Patience JF. The Impact of Dietary Fat Withdrawal On Carcass Iodine Value, Belly Characteristics, and Changes in Body Fat Over Time. J Anim Sci. 2015;93(1):247-57. PubMed PMID: 25568373.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time. AU - Kellner,T A, AU - Prusa,K J, AU - Patience,J F, PY - 2015/1/9/entrez PY - 2015/1/9/pubmed PY - 2016/1/12/medline KW - carcass fat KW - dietary fat withdrawal KW - iodine value KW - linoleic acid KW - pigs SP - 247 EP - 57 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J Anim Sci VL - 93 IS - 1 N2 - The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 ± 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not translate into improved belly firmness, depth, weight, or fat color. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25568373/The_impact_of_dietary_fat_withdrawal_on_carcass_iodine_value_belly_characteristics_and_changes_in_body_fat_over_time_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2014-7650 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -