Enhanced slow-pressor response to angiotensin II in spontaneously hypertensive rats.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Dec; 251(3):909-21.JP
Rapid-pressor and slow-pressor responses to angiotensin (ANG) II and norepinephrine (NE) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto control rats (WKY) were examined. All animals were treated from 4 wk of age with captopril (100 mg/kg/day in drinking water) to prevent development of hypertension so that changes in responsiveness could not be attributed to disparate base-line blood pressures or to hypertension-induced injury of the cardiovascular system. In 11-wk, conscious, unrestrained, captopril-treated rats, ANG II and NE induced rapid-pressor responses (i.e., a rapid increase in arterial blood pressure that reached a maximum within 10 min) that were of similar magnitude in SHR and WKY. In an additional group of 9-wk captopril-treated rats, both ANG II and NE caused slow-pressor responses (i.e., a slow increase in arterial blood pressure over 2 wk). Although the slow-pressor response to NE was similar in SHR versus WKY, the slow-pressor response to ANG II was much greater in SHR compared with WKY. Further studies were conducted in captopril-treated (from 4 wk of age) SHR and WKY to investigate whether the increased slow-pressor response to ANG II in SHR was mediated by an enhanced ability of ANG II to potentiate peripheral sympathetic neurotransmission, contract vascular smooth muscle, increase sympathetic tone to nonadrenal sites, release aldosterone, and/or reduce renal function. No evidence was found that supported a role for the aforementioned nonrenal actions of ANG II. However, 11-wk captopril-treated SHR were 10-fold more sensitive to the antidiuretic, antinatriuretic, and renal vascular effects of intrarenal infusions of ANG II compared with captopril-treated WKY. Also, chronic (1 wk) intrarenal infusions of a very low dose of ANG II (1 ng/min) caused a marked slow-pressor response in 11-wk captopril-treated SHR but did not alter arterial blood pressure in WKY. We conclude that 1) the slow-pressor response to ANG II is greatly enhanced in SHR, 2) this enhancement is specific with respect to type of response (slow not rapid) and pressor agent (ANG II not NE), 3) a genetic defect underlies the increased slow-pressor response to ANG II in SHR, and 4) the enhanced slow-pressor response to ANG II contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of hypertension in SHR. Finally, the current studies are consistent with our working hypothesis that the kidneys mediate the enhanced slow-pressor response to ANG II in SHR.