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Interaction of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in mice causes immunotoxicity and oxidative stress: Possible protective role using lactic acid bacteria.

Abstract

Aflatoxins (AF) are important foodborne mycotoxins implicated in human health and have immunocytotoxic effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate a new aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1)-binding/degrading micro-organism for biological detoxification, to examine its ability to degrade AFB1 and FB1 in liquid medium, and to evaluate its potential in vivo protective role against any combined effects from AFB1 and FB1 on host splenocyte caspase-3 activity (reflecting DNA damage/cell death) and mRNA levels of select inflammation-regulating cytokines. Balb/c mice were divided into groups (10/group) and treated daily for 2 weeks by oral gavage with AFB1 (80 µg/kg BW), FB1 (100 µg/kg), AFB1 + FB1, or lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01, 2 × 10(9) CFU/L, ∼2 mg/kg) - alone or in combination with the AFB1 and/or FB1. After the exposures, spleens were collected for measures of caspase-3 activity, lipid peroxidation (LP), and glutathione (GSH) content, expression of anti-oxidation protective enzymes (GPx and SOD), and mRNA levels of inflammation-regulating cytokines (e.g. IL-10, IL-4, IFNγ, TNFα). Thymii were also removed for analysis of apoptosis. The results indicated that, in the spleen, exposure to the mycotoxins led to increased caspase-3 activity, LP, and IL-10 and IL-4 mRNA levels, but decreased GSH content and down-regulated expression of GPx and SOD, and of IFNγ and TNFα mRNA. Co-treatment using Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) with AFB1 or FB1 suppressed levels of DNA fragmentation, normalized splenic LP and increased GSH levels, up-regulated expression of GPx and SOD, and normalized mRNA levels of the analyzed cytokines. It is concluded that AFB1 and FB1 might have combinational (synergistic moreso than additive) toxic effects in situ. Further, it can be seen that use of LAB induced protective effects against the oxidative stress and (immuno)toxicity of these agents in part through adhesion (and so likely diminished bioavalability).

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    a Unit of Immunology, Environmental Microbiology and Cancerology, Faculty of Sciences , University of Carthage , Tunis , Tunisia and. b Animal Biotechnology Department , Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Beja, University of Jendouba , Jendouba , Tunisia.

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    a Unit of Immunology, Environmental Microbiology and Cancerology, Faculty of Sciences , University of Carthage , Tunis , Tunisia and.

    ,

    a Unit of Immunology, Environmental Microbiology and Cancerology, Faculty of Sciences , University of Carthage , Tunis , Tunisia and.

    ,

    a Unit of Immunology, Environmental Microbiology and Cancerology, Faculty of Sciences , University of Carthage , Tunis , Tunisia and.

    a Unit of Immunology, Environmental Microbiology and Cancerology, Faculty of Sciences , University of Carthage , Tunis , Tunisia and.

    Source

    Journal of immunotoxicology 13:1 2016 pg 46-54

    MeSH

    Aflatoxin B1
    Animals
    Apoptosis
    Caspase 3
    Cytokines
    Drug Interactions
    Female
    Fumonisins
    Glutathione
    Humans
    Inflammation Mediators
    Lactic Acid
    Lactobacillus
    Lipid Peroxidation
    Mice
    Mice, Inbred BALB C
    Oxidative Stress
    Spleen
    Superoxide Dismutase

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25585958