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Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss.

METHODS

Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction.

RESULTS

Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P < 0.01) and 6 mo (P < 0.01). At 6 mo, the weight loss in the vegan group (-7.5% ± 4.5%) was significantly different from the omnivorous (-3.1% ± 3.6%; P = 0.03), semi-vegetarian (-3.2% ± 3.8%; P = 0.03), and pesco-vegetarian (-3.2% ± 3.4%; P = 0.03) groups. Vegan participants decreased their fat and saturated fat more than the pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous groups at both 2 and 6 mo (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Vegan diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina. Electronic address: Brie@sc.edu.

    ,

    Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

    ,

    Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, Public Health Research Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

    ,

    Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, Public Health Research Center, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

    Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Body Mass Index
    Caloric Restriction
    Cholesterol, Dietary
    Diet, Reducing
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fiber
    Dietary Proteins
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Obesity
    Overweight
    Socioeconomic Factors
    Weight Loss
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25592014

    Citation

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M., et al. "Comparative Effectiveness of Plant-based Diets for Weight Loss: a Randomized Controlled Trial of Five Different Diets." Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), vol. 31, no. 2, 2015, pp. 350-8.
    Turner-McGrievy GM, Davidson CR, Wingard EE, et al. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets. Nutrition. 2015;31(2):350-8.
    Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Davidson, C. R., Wingard, E. E., Wilcox, S., & Frongillo, E. A. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 31(2), pp. 350-8. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.09.002.
    Turner-McGrievy GM, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Plant-based Diets for Weight Loss: a Randomized Controlled Trial of Five Different Diets. Nutrition. 2015;31(2):350-8. PubMed PMID: 25592014.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets. AU - Turner-McGrievy,Gabrielle M, AU - Davidson,Charis R, AU - Wingard,Ellen E, AU - Wilcox,Sara, AU - Frongillo,Edward A, Y1 - 2014/10/18/ PY - 2014/07/02/received PY - 2014/09/04/revised PY - 2014/09/05/accepted PY - 2015/1/17/entrez PY - 2015/1/17/pubmed PY - 2015/10/1/medline KW - Diet KW - Obesity KW - Vegan KW - Vegetarian KW - Weight loss SP - 350 EP - 8 JF - Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) JO - Nutrition VL - 31 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. RESULTS: Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P < 0.01) and 6 mo (P < 0.01). At 6 mo, the weight loss in the vegan group (-7.5% ± 4.5%) was significantly different from the omnivorous (-3.1% ± 3.6%; P = 0.03), semi-vegetarian (-3.2% ± 3.8%; P = 0.03), and pesco-vegetarian (-3.2% ± 3.4%; P = 0.03) groups. Vegan participants decreased their fat and saturated fat more than the pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous groups at both 2 and 6 mo (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Vegan diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations. SN - 1873-1244 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25592014/Comparative_effectiveness_of_plant_based_diets_for_weight_loss:_a_randomized_controlled_trial_of_five_different_diets_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899-9007(14)00423-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -