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Does ethnicity have an impact on duration of untreated psychoses: A retrospective study in Singapore.
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015 Nov; 61(7):623-30.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Some studies have suggested ethnicity as being one of the causes leading to a longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first episode psychosis.

AIM

We sought to investigate this issue, in a large cohort of patients with a first episode of psychosis, in Singapore.

METHOD

In this naturalistic retrospective study, 794 patients accepted into Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP) services in Singapore were recruited. Diagnosis was made based on SCID 1 (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV), Axis I Disorders). Information about DUP and sociodemographic characteristics was collected from patients and relatives. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used as tools to assess the severity of symptoms and functioning of the patient, respectively, at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months.

RESULTS

The mean and 50th quantile (median) of DUP for this sample were 14.2 and 6, respectively. The mean and median DUP were higher among Indians than in the other ethnic groups. After adjusting for demographic variables, Indian ethnicity was significantly associated with higher median and 75th Percentile DUP than Chinese. Secondary and tertiary education and diagnosis of affective psychosis and brief psychotic disorder (vs. schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorder) were also significantly associated with lower mean, median and 75th percentile DUP symptoms. Increase in age was significantly associated with higher mean, median and 75th percentile DUP while married and separated/divorced (vs. single) was significantly associated with lower mean and 75th percentile DUP.

CONCLUSION

This study found a positive correlation between certain ethnic groups and DUP. Indian ethnicity, older age, single, lower education and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders were more likely to be associated with longer DUP.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Early Psychosis Intervention Programme, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore Sutapa_Basu@imh.com.sg.Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.Department of Early Psychosis Intervention Programme, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.Department of Early Psychosis Intervention Programme, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25608690

Citation

Basu, Sutapa, et al. "Does Ethnicity Have an Impact On Duration of Untreated Psychoses: a Retrospective Study in Singapore." The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 7, 2015, pp. 623-30.
Basu S, Subramaniam M, Abdin E, et al. Does ethnicity have an impact on duration of untreated psychoses: A retrospective study in Singapore. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015;61(7):623-30.
Basu, S., Subramaniam, M., Abdin, E., Poon, L. Y., & Verma, S. (2015). Does ethnicity have an impact on duration of untreated psychoses: A retrospective study in Singapore. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(7), 623-30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764014568128
Basu S, et al. Does Ethnicity Have an Impact On Duration of Untreated Psychoses: a Retrospective Study in Singapore. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015;61(7):623-30. PubMed PMID: 25608690.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Does ethnicity have an impact on duration of untreated psychoses: A retrospective study in Singapore. AU - Basu,Sutapa, AU - Subramaniam,Mythily, AU - Abdin,Edimansyah, AU - Poon,Lye Yin, AU - Verma,Swapna, Y1 - 2015/01/20/ PY - 2015/1/23/entrez PY - 2015/1/23/pubmed PY - 2016/7/19/medline KW - Ethnicity KW - duration of untreated psychosis KW - first episode psychosis KW - treatment delay SP - 623 EP - 30 JF - The International journal of social psychiatry JO - Int J Soc Psychiatry VL - 61 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested ethnicity as being one of the causes leading to a longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first episode psychosis. AIM: We sought to investigate this issue, in a large cohort of patients with a first episode of psychosis, in Singapore. METHOD: In this naturalistic retrospective study, 794 patients accepted into Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP) services in Singapore were recruited. Diagnosis was made based on SCID 1 (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV), Axis I Disorders). Information about DUP and sociodemographic characteristics was collected from patients and relatives. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used as tools to assess the severity of symptoms and functioning of the patient, respectively, at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. RESULTS: The mean and 50th quantile (median) of DUP for this sample were 14.2 and 6, respectively. The mean and median DUP were higher among Indians than in the other ethnic groups. After adjusting for demographic variables, Indian ethnicity was significantly associated with higher median and 75th Percentile DUP than Chinese. Secondary and tertiary education and diagnosis of affective psychosis and brief psychotic disorder (vs. schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorder) were also significantly associated with lower mean, median and 75th percentile DUP symptoms. Increase in age was significantly associated with higher mean, median and 75th percentile DUP while married and separated/divorced (vs. single) was significantly associated with lower mean and 75th percentile DUP. CONCLUSION: This study found a positive correlation between certain ethnic groups and DUP. Indian ethnicity, older age, single, lower education and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders were more likely to be associated with longer DUP. SN - 1741-2854 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25608690/Does_ethnicity_have_an_impact_on_duration_of_untreated_psychoses:_A_retrospective_study_in_Singapore_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -