The role of inferior vena cava diameter in volume status monitoring; the best sonographic measurement method?Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Mar; 33(3):433-8.AJ
This study aims to determine the site of and the best sonographic method for measurement of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter in volume status monitoring.
This observational before-and-after study was performed at the intensive care unit of the emergency department. It included hypotensive adult patients with suspected sepsis who were recommended to receive at least 20 mg/kg fluid replacement by the emergency physician. The patients were fluid replaced at a rate of 1000 mL/h, and maximum and minimum IVC diameters were measured and the Caval index calculated sonographically via both B-mode and M-mode. Hence, IVC's volume response was assessed by a total of 6 parameters, 3 each in M-mode and B-mode. Freidman test was used to assess the change in IVC diameter with fluid replacement. Wilcoxon test with Bonferroni correction was used to determine which measurement method more sensitively measured IVC diameter change.
Twenty-eight patients with a mean age of 71.3 were included in the final analysis.The IVC diameter change was significant with all 6 methods (P < .001). The IVC minimum diameter change measured on M-mode during inspiration (M-mode i) was the only measurement method that significantly showed diameter change with each 500-mL fluid replacements. The initial and the subsequent M-mode i values after each 500 mL of fluid were 5.65 ± 3.34; 8.05 ± 3.66; 10.16 ± 3.61, and 11.21 ± 2.94, respectively (P < .001, P < .002, and P < .003, respectively).
Inferior vena cava diameter was changed by fluid administration. The M-mode i method that most sensitively measures that change may be the most successful method in volume status monitoring.