The advanced glycation end product methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 and early signs of atherosclerosis in childhood diabetes.Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2015 Mar; 12(2):139-45.DV
Advanced protein glycation is an important mechanism for the development of late diabetic complications including atherosclerosis. Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 is the most abundant advanced glycation end product in human plasma.
To investigate the relationship between methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 and early signs of atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls.
A total of 314 diabetes patients aged 8-18 years were compared with 120 healthy controls. Serum methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 was measured by immunoassay. Atherosclerosis was evaluated by assessing carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound, arterial stiffness by Young's modulus and inflammation by C-reactive protein.
Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 was significantly increased in the diabetes group compared with controls, 155.3 (standard deviation (SD) = 41.0) versus 143.0 (SD = 35.1) U/mL, p = 0.003, as was C-reactive protein, median 0.51 (0.27, 1.83) versus 0.31 (0.19, 0.67) mg/L, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding carotid intima-media thickness or Young's modulus. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant positive association between methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 and C-reactive protein in the diabetes group.
Serum levels of methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 in diabetes patients are increased and associated with low-grade inflammation, but not yet arterial stiffness or wall thickness. This indicates that methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 may be important in the early phase of the accelerated atherosclerotic process in diabetes.