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Biomechanical and histological effects of augmented soft tissue mobilization therapy on achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015 Feb; 38(2):112-8.JM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) has been used to treat Achilles tendinopathy and is thought to promote collagen fiber realignment and hasten tendon regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical and histological effects of ASTM therapy on rabbit Achilles tendons after enzymatically induced injury.

METHODS

This study was a non-human bench controlled research study using a rabbit model. Both Achilles tendons of 12 rabbits were injected with collagenase to produce tendon injury simulating Achilles tendinopathy. One side was then randomly allocated to receive ASTM, while the other received no treatment (control). ASTM was performed on the Achilles tendon on postoperative days 21, 24, 28, 31, 35, and 38. Tendons were harvested 10 days after treatment and examined with dynamic viscoelasticity and light microscopy.

RESULTS

Cross-sectional area in the treated tendons was significantly greater than in controls. Storage modulus tended to be lower in the treated tendons but elasticity was not significantly increased. Loss modulus was significantly lower in the treated tendons. There was no significant difference found in tangent delta (loss modulus/storage modulus). Microscopy of control tendons showed that the tendon fibers were wavy and type III collagen was well stained. The tendon fibers of the augmented soft tissue mobilization treated tendons were not wavy and type III collagen was not prevalent.

CONCLUSION

Biomechanical and histological findings showed that the Achilles tendons treated with ASTM had better recovery of biomechanical function than did control tendons.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Fellow, Mayo Clinic, Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester, MN.Research Fellow, Mayo Clinic, Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester, MN.Engineer, Mayo Clinic, Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester, MN.Professor, Mayo Clinic, Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester, MN.Professor and Director, Mayo Clinic, Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester, MN.Associate Professor and Consultant, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: rgay@mayo.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25620609

Citation

Imai, Kan, et al. "Biomechanical and Histological Effects of Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization Therapy On Achilles Tendinopathy in a Rabbit Model." Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, vol. 38, no. 2, 2015, pp. 112-8.
Imai K, Ikoma K, Chen Q, et al. Biomechanical and histological effects of augmented soft tissue mobilization therapy on achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015;38(2):112-8.
Imai, K., Ikoma, K., Chen, Q., Zhao, C., An, K. N., & Gay, R. E. (2015). Biomechanical and histological effects of augmented soft tissue mobilization therapy on achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 38(2), 112-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.12.003
Imai K, et al. Biomechanical and Histological Effects of Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization Therapy On Achilles Tendinopathy in a Rabbit Model. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015;38(2):112-8. PubMed PMID: 25620609.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Biomechanical and histological effects of augmented soft tissue mobilization therapy on achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model. AU - Imai,Kan, AU - Ikoma,Kazuya, AU - Chen,Qingshan, AU - Zhao,Chunfeng, AU - An,Kai-Nan, AU - Gay,Ralph E, Y1 - 2015/01/22/ PY - 2014/05/15/received PY - 2014/12/03/revised PY - 2014/12/06/accepted PY - 2015/1/27/entrez PY - 2015/1/27/pubmed PY - 2015/12/15/medline KW - Achilles Tendon KW - Massage KW - Tendinopathy KW - Tendon Injuries SP - 112 EP - 8 JF - Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics JO - J Manipulative Physiol Ther VL - 38 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Augmented soft tissue mobilization (ASTM) has been used to treat Achilles tendinopathy and is thought to promote collagen fiber realignment and hasten tendon regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical and histological effects of ASTM therapy on rabbit Achilles tendons after enzymatically induced injury. METHODS: This study was a non-human bench controlled research study using a rabbit model. Both Achilles tendons of 12 rabbits were injected with collagenase to produce tendon injury simulating Achilles tendinopathy. One side was then randomly allocated to receive ASTM, while the other received no treatment (control). ASTM was performed on the Achilles tendon on postoperative days 21, 24, 28, 31, 35, and 38. Tendons were harvested 10 days after treatment and examined with dynamic viscoelasticity and light microscopy. RESULTS: Cross-sectional area in the treated tendons was significantly greater than in controls. Storage modulus tended to be lower in the treated tendons but elasticity was not significantly increased. Loss modulus was significantly lower in the treated tendons. There was no significant difference found in tangent delta (loss modulus/storage modulus). Microscopy of control tendons showed that the tendon fibers were wavy and type III collagen was well stained. The tendon fibers of the augmented soft tissue mobilization treated tendons were not wavy and type III collagen was not prevalent. CONCLUSION: Biomechanical and histological findings showed that the Achilles tendons treated with ASTM had better recovery of biomechanical function than did control tendons. SN - 1532-6586 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25620609/Biomechanical_and_histological_effects_of_augmented_soft_tissue_mobilization_therapy_on_achilles_tendinopathy_in_a_rabbit_model_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-4754(14)00270-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -