Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mortality and Cardiovascular Events Among Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease Due to Lupus Nephritis.Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015 Oct; 67(10):1453-62.AC
To identify racial and ethnic differences in mortality and cardiovascular (CV) risk among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to lupus nephritis (LN).
Within the US ESRD registry (1995-2008), we identified individuals ages >17 years with incident ESRD due to systemic lupus erythematosus. We ascertained demographics, clinical factors, and deaths from registry patient files and CV events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, and hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes) from inpatient Medicare claims. We calculated incidence rates (95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) per 1,000 person-years for study events, stratified by race and ethnicity. We compared probabilities of the events among racial and ethnic groups using cumulative incidence function curves and multivariable-adjusted subdistribution proportional hazard ratios (HRsd), taking into account the competing events of kidney transplantation and death (for nonfatal CV events).
Of 12,533 patients with LN-associated ESRD, the mean ± SD age was 40.7 ± 14.9 years, 82% were women, and 49% were African American. The overall mortality rate was 98.1/1,000 person-years (95% CI 95.3-100.9). In multivariable models, Asian and Hispanic LN-associated ESRD patients had lower mortality than whites (HRsd 0.70 [95% CI 0.58-0.84] and 0.79 [95% CI 0.71-0.88], respectively), whereas African Americans had higher mortality (HRsd 1.27 [95% CI 1.18-1.36]). African American patients >40 years old had higher mortality than their white counterparts (HRsd 1.67 [95% CI 1.44-1.93]). African Americans were more likely to be admitted for heart failure or hemorrhagic stroke.
Among patients with LN-associated ESRD, Asians and Hispanics experienced lower mortality and CV event risks than whites, and African Americans had higher mortality and CV event risks than whites.