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A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted with MVA.
N Engl J Med 2016; 374(17):1635-46NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease that peaked in 2014 has caused more than 11,000 deaths. The development of an effective Ebola vaccine is a priority for control of a future outbreak.

METHODS

In this phase 1 study, we administered a single dose of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 (ChAd3) vaccine encoding the surface glycoprotein of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) to 60 healthy adult volunteers in Oxford, United Kingdom. The vaccine was administered in three dose levels--1×10(10) viral particles, 2.5×10(10) viral particles, and 5×10(10) viral particles--with 20 participants in each group. We then assessed the effect of adding a booster dose of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain, encoding the same Ebola virus glycoprotein, in 30 of the 60 participants and evaluated a reduced prime-boost interval in another 16 participants. We also compared antibody responses to inactivated whole Ebola virus virions and neutralizing antibody activity with those observed in phase 1 studies of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a ZEBOV glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV) to determine relative potency and assess durability.

RESULTS

No safety concerns were identified at any of the dose levels studied. Four weeks after immunization with the ChAd3 vaccine, ZEBOV-specific antibody responses were similar to those induced by rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination, with a geometric mean titer of 752 and 921, respectively. ZEBOV neutralization activity was also similar with the two vaccines (geometric mean titer, 14.9 and 22.2, respectively). Boosting with the MVA vector increased virus-specific antibodies by a factor of 12 (geometric mean titer, 9007) and increased glycoprotein-specific CD8+ T cells by a factor of 5. Significant increases in neutralizing antibodies were seen after boosting in all 30 participants (geometric mean titer, 139; P<0.001). Virus-specific antibody responses in participants primed with ChAd3 remained positive 6 months after vaccination (geometric mean titer, 758) but were significantly higher in those who had received the MVA booster (geometric mean titer, 1750; P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The ChAd3 vaccine boosted with MVA elicited B-cell and T-cell immune responses to ZEBOV that were superior to those induced by the ChAd3 vaccine alone. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240875.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).From the Jenner Institute and Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford (K.E., T.R., N.V., G.B., D.W., T.L., E.B.I., R.P., C.M.T., N.J.E., G.L., J.J., M.G., A.M., M.W., I.P., N.L., R.R., F.H., C.B., K.S.-D., J.P., E.B., A.J.P., S.J.D., A.L., S.C.G., A.V.S.H.), and Viral Pseudotype Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster (E.M.B., E.W.), and Virus Reference Department, Public Health Agency (D.S., R.T.), London - all in the United Kingdom; the Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg (S.K.F., T.S., N.B., V.K., S.B.), and German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen (S.B.), Marburg, and Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried (A.V., P.C.) - all in Germany; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R., I.D.R., W.R.B.); ReiThera, Rome (A.N., L.S., S.C., A.F., S.D.M.), and CEINGE and the Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (A.N.) - both in Italy; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (N.J.S., D.A.S., O.T.M., J.E.L., R.M.S., B.S.G., R.A.K.), and the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (M.M.L.) - both in Maryland; and Keires, Basel, Switzerland (R.C.).

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial, Phase I
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25629663

Citation

Ewer, Katie, et al. "A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted With MVA." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 374, no. 17, 2016, pp. 1635-46.
Ewer K, Rampling T, Venkatraman N, et al. A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted with MVA. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(17):1635-46.
Ewer, K., Rampling, T., Venkatraman, N., Bowyer, G., Wright, D., Lambe, T., ... Hill, A. V. (2016). A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted with MVA. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374(17), pp. 1635-46. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1411627.
Ewer K, et al. A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted With MVA. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 28;374(17):1635-46. PubMed PMID: 25629663.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted with MVA. AU - Ewer,Katie, AU - Rampling,Tommy, AU - Venkatraman,Navin, AU - Bowyer,Georgina, AU - Wright,Danny, AU - Lambe,Teresa, AU - Imoukhuede,Egeruan B, AU - Payne,Ruth, AU - Fehling,Sarah Katharina, AU - Strecker,Thomas, AU - Biedenkopf,Nadine, AU - Krähling,Verena, AU - Tully,Claire M, AU - Edwards,Nick J, AU - Bentley,Emma M, AU - Samuel,Dhanraj, AU - Labbé,Geneviève, AU - Jin,Jing, AU - Gibani,Malick, AU - Minhinnick,Alice, AU - Wilkie,Morven, AU - Poulton,Ian, AU - Lella,Natalie, AU - Roberts,Rachel, AU - Hartnell,Felicity, AU - Bliss,Carly, AU - Sierra-Davidson,Kailan, AU - Powlson,Jonathan, AU - Berrie,Eleanor, AU - Tedder,Richard, AU - Roman,Francois, AU - De Ryck,Iris, AU - Nicosia,Alfredo, AU - Sullivan,Nancy J, AU - Stanley,Daphne A, AU - Mbaya,Olivier T, AU - Ledgerwood,Julie E, AU - Schwartz,Richard M, AU - Siani,Loredana, AU - Colloca,Stefano, AU - Folgori,Antonella, AU - Di Marco,Stefania, AU - Cortese,Riccardo, AU - Wright,Edward, AU - Becker,Stephan, AU - Graham,Barney S, AU - Koup,Richard A, AU - Levine,Myron M, AU - Volkmann,Ariane, AU - Chaplin,Paul, AU - Pollard,Andrew J, AU - Draper,Simon J, AU - Ballou,W Ripley, AU - Lawrie,Alison, AU - Gilbert,Sarah C, AU - Hill,Adrian V S, Y1 - 2015/01/28/ PY - 2015/1/29/entrez PY - 2015/1/30/pubmed PY - 2016/5/6/medline SP - 1635 EP - 46 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N. Engl. J. Med. VL - 374 IS - 17 N2 - BACKGROUND: The West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease that peaked in 2014 has caused more than 11,000 deaths. The development of an effective Ebola vaccine is a priority for control of a future outbreak. METHODS: In this phase 1 study, we administered a single dose of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 (ChAd3) vaccine encoding the surface glycoprotein of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) to 60 healthy adult volunteers in Oxford, United Kingdom. The vaccine was administered in three dose levels--1×10(10) viral particles, 2.5×10(10) viral particles, and 5×10(10) viral particles--with 20 participants in each group. We then assessed the effect of adding a booster dose of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain, encoding the same Ebola virus glycoprotein, in 30 of the 60 participants and evaluated a reduced prime-boost interval in another 16 participants. We also compared antibody responses to inactivated whole Ebola virus virions and neutralizing antibody activity with those observed in phase 1 studies of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a ZEBOV glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV) to determine relative potency and assess durability. RESULTS: No safety concerns were identified at any of the dose levels studied. Four weeks after immunization with the ChAd3 vaccine, ZEBOV-specific antibody responses were similar to those induced by rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination, with a geometric mean titer of 752 and 921, respectively. ZEBOV neutralization activity was also similar with the two vaccines (geometric mean titer, 14.9 and 22.2, respectively). Boosting with the MVA vector increased virus-specific antibodies by a factor of 12 (geometric mean titer, 9007) and increased glycoprotein-specific CD8+ T cells by a factor of 5. Significant increases in neutralizing antibodies were seen after boosting in all 30 participants (geometric mean titer, 139; P<0.001). Virus-specific antibody responses in participants primed with ChAd3 remained positive 6 months after vaccination (geometric mean titer, 758) but were significantly higher in those who had received the MVA booster (geometric mean titer, 1750; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The ChAd3 vaccine boosted with MVA elicited B-cell and T-cell immune responses to ZEBOV that were superior to those induced by the ChAd3 vaccine alone. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240875.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25629663/full_citation L2 - http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1411627?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -