[Nocebo effects with the informed consent].Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2015 Jan; 50(1):64-9.AI
Side effects are more frequent and severe, or simply appear by just talking about them. But not the informed consent is to be challenged, rather the form of giving risk information. Nocebo effects mainly originate from induced negative expectations, not from the information itself. Concerns about legal consequences of an incomplete list of risks do not release from the responsibility to guide and help the patient to an understanding and a balanced decision.