Ambulatory recording of wave reflections and arterial stiffness during intra- and interdialytic periods in patients treated with dialysis.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Apr 07; 10(4):630-8.CJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Wave reflections and arterial stiffness are independent cardiovascular risk factors in ESRD. Previous studies in this population included only static recordings before and after dialysis. This study investigated the variation of these indices during intra- and interdialytic intervals and examined demographic, clinical, and hemodynamic variables related to arterial function in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
Between February 2013 and May 2014, a total of 153 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis in five dialysis centers of northern Greece underwent ambulatory BP monitoring with the newly introduced Mobil-O-Graph device (IEM, Stolberg, Germany) over a midweek dialysis session and the subsequent interdialytic period. Mobil-O-Graph is an oscillometric device that records brachial BP and pulse waves and estimates, via generalized transfer function, aortic BP, augmentation index (AIx) as a measure of wave reflections, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness.
AIx was lower during dialysis than in the interdialytic period of dialysis-on day (Day 1) (mean±SD, 24.7%±9.7% versus 26.8%±9.4%; P<0.001). In contrast, PWV remained unchanged between these intervals (9.31±2.2 versus 9.29±2.3 m/sec; P=0.60). Both AIx and PWV increased during dialysis-off day (Day 2) versus the out-of-dialysis period of Day 1 (28.8%±9.8% versus 26.8%±9.4% [P<0.001] and 9.39±2.3 versus 9.29±2.3 m/sec [P<0.001]). Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.15), female sex (OR, 7.56; 95% CI, 1.64 to 34.81), diabetic status (OR, 8.84; 95% CI, 1.76 to 17.48), and higher mean BP (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.27) were associated with higher odds of high AIx; higher heart rate was associated with lower odds (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.80) of high AIx. Older age (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.58) and higher mean BP (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.27) were independent correlates of high PWV.
This study showed a gradual interdialytic increase in AIx, whereas PWV was only slightly elevated during Day 2. Future studies are needed to elucidate the value of these ambulatory measures for cardiovascular risk prediction in ESRD.