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An enriched, cereal-based bread affects appetite ratings and glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults in a randomized, controlled trial.
J Nutr. 2015 Feb; 145(2):231-8.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Bread can contribute to the regulation of appetite.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread.

METHODS

A randomized, controlled crossover trial was conducted in 30 healthy adults (17 men and 13 women) aged 19-32 y with body mass index of 19.2-28.5. Each volunteer consumed the cereal-based bread and the control bread 2 times, with a 1-wk wash-out period, over a total of 4 sessions. The cereal-based bread contained a variety of cereal flours (wheat, oat, and spelt) and consisted of 22% dried fruits (figs, apricots, raisins, and prunes). It was also enriched with both fiber (7% from wheat cross-linked maltodextrins and pea) and protein (10-11% from wheat gluten and hydrolyzed wheat proteins). The control bread consisted of white bread with margarine and jam to control for energy density, fat, and sugar content. We measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of 4 h after the ingestion of each bread. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) for different variables.

RESULTS

Consuming the cereal-based bread decreased prospective consumption more than consumption of the control bread (-5.3 ± 0.6 m · min and -4.4 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.02) and increased satiety more (6.2 ± 0.7 m · min and 5.2 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.04), although subsequent ad libitum energy intake 4 h later did not differ. Postprandial blood glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide AUCs were lower after the ingestion of the cereal-based bread, whereas the pancreatic polypeptide AUC was higher than with the control bread (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Consumption of the cereal-based bread contributed to appetite control by reducing hunger and enhancing satiety. In addition, consumption of this bread improved glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090049.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II.Physiology, and.Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II.Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II.Nutrition and Food Sciences, Jose Mataix Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II agil@ugr.es.Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25644342

Citation

Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina, et al. "An Enriched, Cereal-based Bread Affects Appetite Ratings and Glycemic, Insulinemic, and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Adults in a Randomized, Controlled Trial." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 2, 2015, pp. 231-8.
Gonzalez-Anton C, Lopez-Millan B, Rico MC, et al. An enriched, cereal-based bread affects appetite ratings and glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults in a randomized, controlled trial. J Nutr. 2015;145(2):231-8.
Gonzalez-Anton, C., Lopez-Millan, B., Rico, M. C., Sanchez-Rodriguez, E., Ruiz-Lopez, M. D., Gil, A., & Mesa, M. D. (2015). An enriched, cereal-based bread affects appetite ratings and glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults in a randomized, controlled trial. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(2), 231-8. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.200386
Gonzalez-Anton C, et al. An Enriched, Cereal-based Bread Affects Appetite Ratings and Glycemic, Insulinemic, and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Adults in a Randomized, Controlled Trial. J Nutr. 2015;145(2):231-8. PubMed PMID: 25644342.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An enriched, cereal-based bread affects appetite ratings and glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults in a randomized, controlled trial. AU - Gonzalez-Anton,Carolina, AU - Lopez-Millan,Belen, AU - Rico,Maria C, AU - Sanchez-Rodriguez,Estefania, AU - Ruiz-Lopez,Maria D, AU - Gil,Angel, AU - Mesa,Maria D, Y1 - 2014/12/10/ PY - 2015/2/4/entrez PY - 2015/2/4/pubmed PY - 2015/3/24/medline KW - appetite KW - bread KW - dietary fiber KW - gastrointestinal hormones KW - glycemia KW - insulinemia KW - satiety SP - 231 EP - 8 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 145 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Bread can contribute to the regulation of appetite. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread. METHODS: A randomized, controlled crossover trial was conducted in 30 healthy adults (17 men and 13 women) aged 19-32 y with body mass index of 19.2-28.5. Each volunteer consumed the cereal-based bread and the control bread 2 times, with a 1-wk wash-out period, over a total of 4 sessions. The cereal-based bread contained a variety of cereal flours (wheat, oat, and spelt) and consisted of 22% dried fruits (figs, apricots, raisins, and prunes). It was also enriched with both fiber (7% from wheat cross-linked maltodextrins and pea) and protein (10-11% from wheat gluten and hydrolyzed wheat proteins). The control bread consisted of white bread with margarine and jam to control for energy density, fat, and sugar content. We measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of 4 h after the ingestion of each bread. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) for different variables. RESULTS: Consuming the cereal-based bread decreased prospective consumption more than consumption of the control bread (-5.3 ± 0.6 m · min and -4.4 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.02) and increased satiety more (6.2 ± 0.7 m · min and 5.2 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.04), although subsequent ad libitum energy intake 4 h later did not differ. Postprandial blood glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide AUCs were lower after the ingestion of the cereal-based bread, whereas the pancreatic polypeptide AUC was higher than with the control bread (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of the cereal-based bread contributed to appetite control by reducing hunger and enhancing satiety. In addition, consumption of this bread improved glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090049. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25644342/An_enriched_cereal_based_bread_affects_appetite_ratings_and_glycemic_insulinemic_and_gastrointestinal_hormone_responses_in_healthy_adults_in_a_randomized_controlled_trial_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -