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A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb; 101(2):279-86.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for muscle loss and sarcopenia.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to examine the effect of a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement on muscle mass preservation during intentional weight loss in obese older adults.

DESIGN

We included 80 obese older adults in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. During a 13-wk weight loss program, all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (-600 kcal/d) and performed resistance training 3×/wk. Subjects were randomly allocated to a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement including a mix of other macro- and micronutrients (150 kcal, 21 g protein; 10×/wk, intervention group) or an isocaloric control. The primary outcome was change in appendicular muscle mass. The secondary outcomes were body composition, handgrip strength, and physical performance. Data were analyzed by using ANCOVA and mixed linear models with sex and baseline value as covariates.

RESULTS

At baseline, mean ± SD age was 63 ± 5.6 y, and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) was 33 ± 4.4. During the trial, protein intake was 1.11 ± 0.28 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1) in the intervention group compared with 0.85 ± 0.24 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1) in the control group (P < 0.001). Both intervention and control groups decreased in body weight (-3.4 ± 3.6 kg and -2.8 ± 2.8 kg; both P < 0.001) and fat mass (-3.2 ± 3.1 kg and -2.5 ± 2.4 kg; both P < 0.001), with no differences between groups. The 13-wk change in appendicular muscle mass, however, was different in the intervention and control groups [+0.4 ± 1.2 kg and -0.5 ± 2.1 kg, respectively; β = 0.95 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 1.81); P = 0.03]. Muscle strength and function improved over time without significant differences between groups.

CONCLUSION

A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement compared with isocaloric control preserves appendicular muscle mass in obese older adults during a hypocaloric diet and resistance exercise program and might therefore reduce the risk of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl) as NTR2751.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25646324

Citation

Verreijen, Amely M., et al. "A High Whey Protein-, Leucine-, and Vitamin D-enriched Supplement Preserves Muscle Mass During Intentional Weight Loss in Obese Older Adults: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 101, no. 2, 2015, pp. 279-86.
Verreijen AM, Verlaan S, Engberink MF, et al. A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(2):279-86.
Verreijen, A. M., Verlaan, S., Engberink, M. F., Swinkels, S., de Vogel-van den Bosch, J., & Weijs, P. J. (2015). A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(2), 279-86. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.090290
Verreijen AM, et al. A High Whey Protein-, Leucine-, and Vitamin D-enriched Supplement Preserves Muscle Mass During Intentional Weight Loss in Obese Older Adults: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(2):279-86. PubMed PMID: 25646324.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. AU - Verreijen,Amely M, AU - Verlaan,Sjors, AU - Engberink,Mariëlle F, AU - Swinkels,Sophie, AU - de Vogel-van den Bosch,Johan, AU - Weijs,Peter J M, Y1 - 2014/11/26/ PY - 2015/2/4/entrez PY - 2015/2/4/pubmed PY - 2015/3/21/medline KW - muscle preservation KW - obese older adults KW - randomized trial KW - weight loss KW - whey protein SP - 279 EP - 86 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 101 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for muscle loss and sarcopenia. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement on muscle mass preservation during intentional weight loss in obese older adults. DESIGN: We included 80 obese older adults in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. During a 13-wk weight loss program, all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (-600 kcal/d) and performed resistance training 3×/wk. Subjects were randomly allocated to a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement including a mix of other macro- and micronutrients (150 kcal, 21 g protein; 10×/wk, intervention group) or an isocaloric control. The primary outcome was change in appendicular muscle mass. The secondary outcomes were body composition, handgrip strength, and physical performance. Data were analyzed by using ANCOVA and mixed linear models with sex and baseline value as covariates. RESULTS: At baseline, mean ± SD age was 63 ± 5.6 y, and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) was 33 ± 4.4. During the trial, protein intake was 1.11 ± 0.28 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1) in the intervention group compared with 0.85 ± 0.24 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1) in the control group (P < 0.001). Both intervention and control groups decreased in body weight (-3.4 ± 3.6 kg and -2.8 ± 2.8 kg; both P < 0.001) and fat mass (-3.2 ± 3.1 kg and -2.5 ± 2.4 kg; both P < 0.001), with no differences between groups. The 13-wk change in appendicular muscle mass, however, was different in the intervention and control groups [+0.4 ± 1.2 kg and -0.5 ± 2.1 kg, respectively; β = 0.95 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 1.81); P = 0.03]. Muscle strength and function improved over time without significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement compared with isocaloric control preserves appendicular muscle mass in obese older adults during a hypocaloric diet and resistance exercise program and might therefore reduce the risk of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl) as NTR2751. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25646324/A_high_whey_protein__leucine__and_vitamin_D_enriched_supplement_preserves_muscle_mass_during_intentional_weight_loss_in_obese_older_adults:_a_double_blind_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.090290 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -