Response to Hepatitis A Vaccination in Immunocompromised Travelers.J Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 01; 212(3):378-85.JI
Hepatitis A vaccines are highly immunogenic in healthy patients, but there is uncertainty about their immunogenicity in immunocompromised patients.
Our study included immunocompromised patients who received 1 or 2 hepatitis A vaccinations between January 2011 and June 2013. We assessed factors that influenced the serologic response to vaccination. We performed a literature review of previous studies on hepatitis A vaccination in immunocompromised patients.
Of 85 immunocompromised patients, 65 used immunosuppressive drugs, 13 had received stem cell transplants, and 7 were infected with human immunodeficiency virus. After vaccination, 65 of 85 (76.5%) developed antibodies. Tumor necrosis factor α blocker use was associated with better serologic responses than other immunosuppressive drugs. Female patients were more compliant than male patients with postvaccination antibody titer measurements. In 11 relevant studies, antibody responses after the first and second vaccination averaged 37% and 82%, respectively. Factors that negatively influenced serologic response rates were high doses of immunosuppressive drugs, fewer hepatitis A vaccinations, and a short interval between vaccination and antibody measurement.
Immunocompromised patients showed moderate to good serologic responses to hepatitis A vaccination, but may need more time to develop immunity. Tumor necrosis factor α blocker use was associated with better antibody responses than other drugs. Specifically, male patients should be motivated to return for antibody titer measurements.