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Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Matern Child Health J 2015; 19(9):2048-56MC

Abstract

Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for <1 week or never while 32% were breastfed for at least 6 months. In the fully adjusted model, children who were only formula fed or who were combination fed for <6 months were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to children who were only breastfed (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60 and OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69, respectively). When examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Applied Human Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada, mdrossiter@upei.ca.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25656729

Citation

Rossiter, Melissa D., et al. "Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada." Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 19, no. 9, 2015, pp. 2048-56.
Rossiter MD, Colapinto CK, Khan MK, et al. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19(9):2048-56.
Rossiter, M. D., Colapinto, C. K., Khan, M. K., McIsaac, J. L., Williams, P. L., Kirk, S. F., & Veugelers, P. J. (2015). Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(9), pp. 2048-56. doi:10.1007/s10995-015-1717-y.
Rossiter MD, et al. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19(9):2048-56. PubMed PMID: 25656729.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada. AU - Rossiter,Melissa D, AU - Colapinto,Cynthia K, AU - Khan,Mohammad K A, AU - McIsaac,Jessie-Lee D, AU - Williams,Patricia L, AU - Kirk,Sara F L, AU - Veugelers,Paul J, PY - 2015/2/7/entrez PY - 2015/2/7/pubmed PY - 2016/3/24/medline SP - 2048 EP - 56 JF - Maternal and child health journal JO - Matern Child Health J VL - 19 IS - 9 N2 - Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for <1 week or never while 32% were breastfed for at least 6 months. In the fully adjusted model, children who were only formula fed or who were combination fed for <6 months were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to children who were only breastfed (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60 and OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69, respectively). When examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. SN - 1573-6628 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25656729/Breast_Formula_and_Combination_Feeding_in_Relation_to_Childhood_Obesity_in_Nova_Scotia_Canada_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015-1717-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -