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Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.
J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Mar 04; 63(8):2137-44.JA

Abstract

Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

CSIRO Agriculture Flagship , Waite Campus, PMB2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, South Australia 5064, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25661455

Citation

Davies, Christopher, et al. "Shiraz Wines Made From Grape Berries (Vitis Vinifera) Delayed in Ripening By Plant Growth Regulator Treatment Have Elevated Rotundone Concentrations and "pepper" Flavor and Aroma." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 63, no. 8, 2015, pp. 2137-44.
Davies C, Nicholson EL, Böttcher C, et al. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63(8):2137-44.
Davies, C., Nicholson, E. L., Böttcher, C., Burbidge, C. A., Bastian, S. E., Harvey, K. E., Huang, A. C., Taylor, D. K., & Boss, P. K. (2015). Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(8), 2137-44. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf505491d
Davies C, et al. Shiraz Wines Made From Grape Berries (Vitis Vinifera) Delayed in Ripening By Plant Growth Regulator Treatment Have Elevated Rotundone Concentrations and "pepper" Flavor and Aroma. J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Mar 4;63(8):2137-44. PubMed PMID: 25661455.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma. AU - Davies,Christopher, AU - Nicholson,Emily L, AU - Böttcher,Christine, AU - Burbidge,Crista A, AU - Bastian,Susan E P, AU - Harvey,Katie E, AU - Huang,An-Cheng, AU - Taylor,Dennis K, AU - Boss,Paul K, Y1 - 2015/02/18/ PY - 2015/2/10/entrez PY - 2015/2/11/pubmed PY - 2015/11/14/medline KW - 1-naphthaleneacetic acid KW - Ethrel KW - aroma KW - berry ripening KW - flavor KW - rotundone KW - wine SP - 2137 EP - 44 JF - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry JO - J Agric Food Chem VL - 63 IS - 8 N2 - Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes. SN - 1520-5118 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25661455/Shiraz_wines_made_from_grape_berries__Vitis_vinifera__delayed_in_ripening_by_plant_growth_regulator_treatment_have_elevated_rotundone_concentrations_and_"pepper"_flavor_and_aroma_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -