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A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2015; 62:23-37IB

Abstract

Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA; Institute of Biological Sciences, Donghua University, Songjiang, Shanghai 310029, China.Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. Electronic address: haobo.jiang@okstate.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25662101

Citation

He, Yan, et al. "A Genome-wide Analysis of Antimicrobial Effector Genes and Their Transcription Patterns in Manduca Sexta." Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 62, 2015, pp. 23-37.
He Y, Cao X, Li K, et al. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;62:23-37.
He, Y., Cao, X., Li, K., Hu, Y., Chen, Y. R., Blissard, G., ... Jiang, H. (2015). A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 62, pp. 23-37. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.01.015.
He Y, et al. A Genome-wide Analysis of Antimicrobial Effector Genes and Their Transcription Patterns in Manduca Sexta. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;62:23-37. PubMed PMID: 25662101.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta. AU - He,Yan, AU - Cao,Xiaolong, AU - Li,Kai, AU - Hu,Yingxia, AU - Chen,Yun-ru, AU - Blissard,Gary, AU - Kanost,Michael R, AU - Jiang,Haobo, Y1 - 2015/02/03/ PY - 2014/08/19/received PY - 2015/01/13/revised PY - 2015/01/23/accepted PY - 2015/2/10/entrez PY - 2015/2/11/pubmed PY - 2016/3/2/medline KW - Comparative genomics KW - Hemolymph proteins KW - Insect immunity KW - Phylogenetic relationship KW - RNA-Seq KW - Tobacco hornworm SP - 23 EP - 37 JF - Insect biochemistry and molecular biology JO - Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. VL - 62 N2 - Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. SN - 1879-0240 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25662101/A_genome_wide_analysis_of_antimicrobial_effector_genes_and_their_transcription_patterns_in_Manduca_sexta_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0965-1748(15)00022-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -