6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione as an excitatory amino acid antagonist in area CA1 of rat hippocampus.Br J Pharmacol. 1989 May; 97(1):71-6.BJ
1. A quantitative pharmacological investigation of the excitatory amino acid antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) has been made in area CA1 of rat hippocampal slices bathed in 1 mM Mg2+ containing medium. 2. At a concentration of 10 microM, CNQX reversibly antagonized responses to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), quisqualate and kainate; it produced a parallel shift in their log dose-response curves. Responses to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were not antagonized by 10 microM CNQX (dose-ratio: 1.04 +/- 0.06, n = 3). 3. Schild plots (constructed over the range 1-100 microM) yielded the following estimated pA2 values, AMPA 5.8, quisqualate 5.9, and kainate 5.9. NMDA was antagonized by 100 microM CNQX, giving an apparent log K of 4.44 +/- 0.06. 4. The slopes (+/- s.e. mean) of the Schild plots were for AMPA 0.84 +/- 0.06, quisqualate 0.79 +/- 0.04 and kainate 0.68 +/- 0.07. These were all significantly less than unity. 5. Synaptic responses elicited by low frequency activation of the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway were blocked completely by CNQX (10 microM) providing that a low stimulus intensity was used. With high intensity stimulation a small component remained that was blocked by the selective NMDA antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV). 6. These results suggest that CNQX does not differentially affect the responses of CA1 neurones to AMPA, quisqualate and kainate. It does, however, depress responses to these agonists to a greater degree than it does responses to NMDA and it is a highly effective synaptic antagonist.