The Type III Effector AvrBs2 in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Suppresses Rice Immunity and Promotes Disease Development.Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2015 Aug; 28(8):869-80.MP
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in rice. However, little is known about the functions of individual type III effectors in virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Here, we examined the effect of the mutations of 23 putative nontranscription activator-like effector genes on X. oryzae pv. oryzicola virulence. The avrBs2 knock-out mutant was significantly attenuated in virulence to rice. In contrast, the xopAA deletion caused enhanced virulence to a certain rice cultivar. It was also demonstrated that six putative effectors, including XopN, XopX, XopA, XopY, XopF1, and AvrBs2, caused the hypersensitive response on nonhost Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Virulence function of AvrBs2 was further confirmed by transgenic technology. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses including the generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of pathogenesis-related genes were strongly suppressed in the AvrBs2-expressing transgenic rice lines. Although not inhibiting flg22-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, heterologous expression of AvrBs2 greatly promotes disease progression in rice caused by two important bacterial pathogens X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola. Collectively, these results indicate that AvrBs2 is an essential virulence factor that contributes to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola virulence through inhibiting defense responses and promoting bacterial multiplication in monocot rice.