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Antivenom cross-neutralization of the venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, two common sea snakes in Malaysian waters.
Toxins (Basel). 2015 Feb 16; 7(2):572-81.T

Abstract

Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. This study investigated the cross-neutralizing potential of three regionally produced anti-cobra antivenoms against the venoms of Malaysian H. schistosus and H. curtus. All three antivenoms conferred paraspecific protection from sea snake venom lethality in mice, with potency increasing in the following order: Taiwan bivalent antivenom < Thai monocled cobra monovalent antivenom < Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (NPAV). NPAV demonstrated cross-neutralizing potencies of 0.4 mg/vial for H. schistosus venom and 0.8 mg/vial for H. curtus, which translates to a dose of less than 20 vials of NPAV to neutralize an average amount of sea snake venom per bite (inferred from venom milking). The cross-neutralization activity was supported by ELISA cross-reactivity between NPAV and the venoms of H. schistosus (58.4%) and H. curtus (70.4%). These findings revealed the potential of NPAV as a second-line treatment for sea snake envenomation in the region. Further profiling of the cross-neutralization activity should address the antivenomic basis using purified toxin-based assays.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. tanchoohock@gmail.com.Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. tanngethong@yahoo.com.sg.Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. kytan_kae@yahoo.com.Centre for Marine & Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. kokonn.kwong@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25690691

Citation

Tan, Choo Hock, et al. "Antivenom Cross-neutralization of the Venoms of Hydrophis Schistosus and Hydrophis Curtus, Two Common Sea Snakes in Malaysian Waters." Toxins, vol. 7, no. 2, 2015, pp. 572-81.
Tan CH, Tan NH, Tan KY, et al. Antivenom cross-neutralization of the venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, two common sea snakes in Malaysian waters. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7(2):572-81.
Tan, C. H., Tan, N. H., Tan, K. Y., & Kwong, K. O. (2015). Antivenom cross-neutralization of the venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, two common sea snakes in Malaysian waters. Toxins, 7(2), 572-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7020572
Tan CH, et al. Antivenom Cross-neutralization of the Venoms of Hydrophis Schistosus and Hydrophis Curtus, Two Common Sea Snakes in Malaysian Waters. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Feb 16;7(2):572-81. PubMed PMID: 25690691.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antivenom cross-neutralization of the venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, two common sea snakes in Malaysian waters. AU - Tan,Choo Hock, AU - Tan,Nget Hong, AU - Tan,Kae Yi, AU - Kwong,Kok Onn, Y1 - 2015/02/16/ PY - 2014/11/25/received PY - 2015/01/08/revised PY - 2015/01/15/accepted PY - 2015/2/19/entrez PY - 2015/2/19/pubmed PY - 2015/10/21/medline SP - 572 EP - 81 JF - Toxins JO - Toxins (Basel) VL - 7 IS - 2 N2 - Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. This study investigated the cross-neutralizing potential of three regionally produced anti-cobra antivenoms against the venoms of Malaysian H. schistosus and H. curtus. All three antivenoms conferred paraspecific protection from sea snake venom lethality in mice, with potency increasing in the following order: Taiwan bivalent antivenom < Thai monocled cobra monovalent antivenom < Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (NPAV). NPAV demonstrated cross-neutralizing potencies of 0.4 mg/vial for H. schistosus venom and 0.8 mg/vial for H. curtus, which translates to a dose of less than 20 vials of NPAV to neutralize an average amount of sea snake venom per bite (inferred from venom milking). The cross-neutralization activity was supported by ELISA cross-reactivity between NPAV and the venoms of H. schistosus (58.4%) and H. curtus (70.4%). These findings revealed the potential of NPAV as a second-line treatment for sea snake envenomation in the region. Further profiling of the cross-neutralization activity should address the antivenomic basis using purified toxin-based assays. SN - 2072-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25690691/Antivenom_cross_neutralization_of_the_venoms_of_Hydrophis_schistosus_and_Hydrophis_curtus_two_common_sea_snakes_in_Malaysian_waters_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=toxins7020572 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -