The preclinical evaluation of the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor INK-128 as a potential anti-colorectal cancer agent.Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(1):34-42.CB
The colorectal cancer is the leading contributor of cancer-related mortality. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in 2 complexes (mTORC1/2), is frequently dysregulated and constitutively activated in colorectal cancers. It represents an important drug target. Here we found that INK-128, the novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor of mTOR, blocked both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in colorectal cancer cells (both primary and transformed cells). The immunoprecipitation results showed that the assembly of mTORC1 (mTOR-Raptor association) and mTORC2 (mTOR-Rictor-Sin1 association) was also disrupted by INK-128. INK-128 inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth and survival, and induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cancer cell death. Further, INK-128 showed no effect on Erk/MAPK activation, while MEK/Erk inhibition by MEK-162 enhanced INK-128-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Meanwhile, INK-128 downregulated Fascin1 (FSCN1)/E-Cadherin expressions and inhibited HT-29 cell in vitro migration. In vivo, daily INK-128 oral administration inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in mice, which was further enhanced by MEK-162 administration. Finally, we found that INK-128 sensitized 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-mediated anti-HT-29 activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our preclinical studies strongly suggest that INK-128 might be investigated for colorectal cancer treatment in clinical trials.