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Transmission of Ebola viruses: what we know and what we do not know.
MBio 2015; 6(2):e00137MBIO

Abstract

Available evidence demonstrates that direct patient contact and contact with infectious body fluids are the primary modes for Ebola virus transmission, but this is based on a limited number of studies. Key areas requiring further study include (i) the role of aerosol transmission (either via large droplets or small particles in the vicinity of source patients), (ii) the role of environmental contamination and fomite transmission, (iii) the degree to which minimally or mildly ill persons transmit infection, (iv) how long clinically relevant infectiousness persists, (v) the role that "superspreading events" may play in driving transmission dynamics, (vi) whether strain differences or repeated serial passage in outbreak settings can impact virus transmission, and (vii) what role sylvatic or domestic animals could play in outbreak propagation, particularly during major epidemics such as the 2013-2015 West Africa situation. In this review, we address what we know and what we do not know about Ebola virus transmission. We also hypothesize that Ebola viruses have the potential to be respiratory pathogens with primary respiratory spread.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA mto@umn.edu.Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.National Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.The Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.The Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.The Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, DC, USA.Medical Department Unit, Médecins sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium.Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.Ministry of Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.National Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.National Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.Medical Department Unit, Médecins sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium.Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone.Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone.Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, USA.National Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25698835

Citation

Osterholm, Michael T., et al. "Transmission of Ebola Viruses: what We Know and what We Do Not Know." MBio, vol. 6, no. 2, 2015, pp. e00137.
Osterholm MT, Moore KA, Kelley NS, et al. Transmission of Ebola viruses: what we know and what we do not know. MBio. 2015;6(2):e00137.
Osterholm, M. T., Moore, K. A., Kelley, N. S., Brosseau, L. M., Wong, G., Murphy, F. A., ... Kobinger, G. P. (2015). Transmission of Ebola viruses: what we know and what we do not know. MBio, 6(2), pp. e00137. doi:10.1128/mBio.00137-15.
Osterholm MT, et al. Transmission of Ebola Viruses: what We Know and what We Do Not Know. MBio. 2015 Feb 19;6(2):e00137. PubMed PMID: 25698835.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transmission of Ebola viruses: what we know and what we do not know. AU - Osterholm,Michael T, AU - Moore,Kristine A, AU - Kelley,Nicholas S, AU - Brosseau,Lisa M, AU - Wong,Gary, AU - Murphy,Frederick A, AU - Peters,Clarence J, AU - LeDuc,James W, AU - Russell,Phillip K, AU - Van Herp,Michel, AU - Kapetshi,Jimmy, AU - Muyembe,Jean-Jacques T, AU - Ilunga,Benoit Kebela, AU - Strong,James E, AU - Grolla,Allen, AU - Wolz,Anja, AU - Kargbo,Brima, AU - Kargbo,David K, AU - Sanders,David Avram, AU - Kobinger,Gary P, Y1 - 2015/02/19/ PY - 2015/2/21/entrez PY - 2015/2/24/pubmed PY - 2016/2/26/medline SP - e00137 EP - e00137 JF - mBio JO - MBio VL - 6 IS - 2 N2 - Available evidence demonstrates that direct patient contact and contact with infectious body fluids are the primary modes for Ebola virus transmission, but this is based on a limited number of studies. Key areas requiring further study include (i) the role of aerosol transmission (either via large droplets or small particles in the vicinity of source patients), (ii) the role of environmental contamination and fomite transmission, (iii) the degree to which minimally or mildly ill persons transmit infection, (iv) how long clinically relevant infectiousness persists, (v) the role that "superspreading events" may play in driving transmission dynamics, (vi) whether strain differences or repeated serial passage in outbreak settings can impact virus transmission, and (vii) what role sylvatic or domestic animals could play in outbreak propagation, particularly during major epidemics such as the 2013-2015 West Africa situation. In this review, we address what we know and what we do not know about Ebola virus transmission. We also hypothesize that Ebola viruses have the potential to be respiratory pathogens with primary respiratory spread. SN - 2150-7511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25698835/full_citation L2 - http://mbio.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=25698835 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -