Incidence, prognostic impact, and optimal definition of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in consecutive patients with stable or unstable coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. insights from the all-comer PRODIGY trial.Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2015; 86(1):E19-27CC
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with poor outcome. Whether this association differs in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as compared to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients is unknown. Definitions and Methods: PRODIGY trial patients were defined as stable CAD or ACS according to the initial presentation. CI-AKI was defined as an increase (Δ) of serum creatinine (SCr) ≥25% above baseline. Two endpoints were considered: all-cause death and the composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI). The interaction between CI-AKI, clinical setting, and the impact of increasing ΔSCr% cut-offs were also explored.
Two thousand three patients were enrolled in the PRODIGY trial, 85 patients were excluded for missing SCr data, leading to a population of 1,918 patients. CI-AKI incidence was 6.7% in stable CAD and 12.2% in ACS patients. CI-AKI was associated with all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-3.05, P < 0.001] and the composite of death, stroke, or MI [aHR of 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, P < 0.001]. The risk of CI-AKI for the composite endpoint was higher in stable CAD, P for interaction: 0.048. A ΔSCr of 35% was associated with the highest aHR for all-cause mortality: 2.34 [95% CI, 1.46-3.76, P < 0.001] and the composite of death, stroke, or MI: 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20-2.40, P > 0.001].
In a large, contemporary, all-comers percutaneous coronary intervention population, CI-AKI was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and the composite of death, stroke, or MI. While CI-AKI is more common in ACS than in stable CAD patients, its adjusted prognostic impact on the composite endpoint appears to be more pronounced in patients with stable CAD.