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S100 and S100β: biomarkers of cerebral damage in cardiac surgery with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.



The present study is to describe the clinical impact of S100 and S100β for the evaluation of cerebral damage in cardiac surgery with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).


Quantitative results of S100 and S100β reported in the literature of the year range 1990-2014 were collected, screened and analyzed.


Cerebrospinal fluid and serum S100 levels showed a same trend reaching a peak at the end of CPB. The cerebrospinal fluid/serum S100 ratio decreased during CPB, reached a nadir at 6 h after CPB and then increased and kept high untill 24 h after CPB. Serum S100 at the end of CPB was much higher in infant than in adults, and in on-pump than in off-pump coronary artery bypass patients. ∆S100 increased with age and CPB time but lack of statistical significances. Patients receiving an aorta replacement had a much higher ∆S100 than those receiving a congenital heart defect repair. Serum S100β reached a peak at the end of CPB, whereas cerebrospinal fluid S100 continued to increase and reached a peak at 6 h after CPB. The cerebrospinal fluid/serum S100β ratio decreased during CPB, increased at the end of CPB, peaked 1 h after CPB, and then decreased abruptly. The increase of serum S100β at the end of CPB was associated with type of operation, younger age, lower core temperature and cerebral damages. ∆S100β displayed a decreasing trend with age, type of operation, shortening of CPB duration, increasing core temperature, lessening severity of cerebral damage and the application of intervenes. Linear correlation analysis revealed that serum S100β concentration at the end of CPB correlated closely with CPB duration.


S100 and S100β in cerebrospinal fluid can be more accurate than in the serum for the evaluations of cerebral damage in cardiac surgery. However, cerebrospinal fluid biopsies are limited. But serum S100β and ∆S100β seem to be more sensitive than serum S100 and ∆S100. The cerebral damage in cardiac surgery might be associated with younger age, lower core temperature and longer CPB duration during the operation. Effective intervenes with modified CPB circuit filters or oxygenators and supplemented anesthetic agents or priming components may alleviate the cerebral damage.


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    The First Hospital of Putian, Teaching Hospital, Fujian Medical University.



    Aged, 80 and over
    Biological Markers
    Brain Injuries
    Cardiac Surgical Procedures
    Cardiopulmonary Bypass
    Child, Preschool
    Infant, Newborn
    Middle Aged
    Reference Values
    Reproducibility of Results
    S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
    S100 Proteins
    Time Factors
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article



    PubMed ID