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There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women.
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 May 01; 16(5):400-11.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the proposed prevalence of unresponsiveness of older men and women to augment lean body mass, muscle fiber size, muscle strength, and/or physical function following prolonged resistance-type exercise training.

DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS

A retrospective analysis of the adaptive response to 12 (n = 110) and 24 (n = 85) weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training in older (>65 years) men and women.

MEASUREMENTS

Lean body mass (DXA), type I and type II muscle fiber size (biopsy), leg strength (1-RM on leg press and leg extension), and physical function (chair-rise time) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of resistance-type exercise training.

RESULTS

Lean body mass increased by 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (range: -3.3 to +5.4 kg; P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks of training. From 0 to 24 weeks, lean body mass increased by 1.1 ± 0.2 kg (range: -1.8 to +9.2 kg; P < .001). Type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 324 ± 137 μm(2) (range: -4458 to +3386 μm(2); P = .021), and 701 ± 137 μm(2) (range: -4041 to +3904 μm(2); P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 360 ± 157 μm(2) (range: -3531 to +3426 μm(2); P = .026) and 779 ± 161 μm(2) (range: -2728 to +3815 μm(2); P < .001). The 1-RM strength on the leg press and leg extension increased by 33 ± 2 kg (range: -36 to +87 kg; P < .001) and 20 ± 1 kg (range: -22 to +56 kg; P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, leg press and leg extension 1-RM increased by 50 ± 3 kg (range: -28 to +145 kg; P < .001) and 29 ± 2 kg (range: -19 to +60 kg; P < .001). Chair-rise time decreased by 1.3 ± 0.4 seconds (range: +21.6 to -12.5 seconds; P = .003) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, chair-rise time decreased by 2.3 ± 0.4 seconds (range: +10.5 to -23.0 seconds; P < .001). Nonresponsiveness was not apparent in any subject, as a positive adaptive response on at least one training outcome was apparent in every subject.

CONCLUSIONS

A large heterogeneity was apparent in the adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training when changes in lean body mass, muscle fiber size, strength, and physical function were assessed in older men and women. The level of responsiveness was strongly affected by the duration of the exercise intervention, with more positive responses following more prolonged exercise training. We conclude that there are no nonresponders to the benefits of resistance-type exercise training on lean body mass, fiber size, strength, or function in the older population. Consequently, resistance-type exercise should be promoted without restriction to support healthy aging in the older population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: L.vanLoon@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25717010

Citation

Churchward-Venne, Tyler A., et al. "There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women." Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 16, no. 5, 2015, pp. 400-11.
Churchward-Venne TA, Tieland M, Verdijk LB, et al. There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015;16(5):400-11.
Churchward-Venne, T. A., Tieland, M., Verdijk, L. B., Leenders, M., Dirks, M. L., de Groot, L. C., & van Loon, L. J. (2015). There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(5), 400-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2015.01.071
Churchward-Venne TA, et al. There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015 May 1;16(5):400-11. PubMed PMID: 25717010.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and Women. AU - Churchward-Venne,Tyler A, AU - Tieland,Michael, AU - Verdijk,Lex B, AU - Leenders,Marika, AU - Dirks,Marlou L, AU - de Groot,Lisette C P G M, AU - van Loon,Luc J C, Y1 - 2015/02/21/ PY - 2014/12/21/received PY - 2015/01/06/accepted PY - 2015/2/27/entrez PY - 2015/2/27/pubmed PY - 2016/3/5/medline KW - Resistance exercise KW - aging KW - lean body mass KW - muscle function KW - muscle strength KW - sarcopenia SP - 400 EP - 11 JF - Journal of the American Medical Directors Association JO - J Am Med Dir Assoc VL - 16 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess the proposed prevalence of unresponsiveness of older men and women to augment lean body mass, muscle fiber size, muscle strength, and/or physical function following prolonged resistance-type exercise training. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective analysis of the adaptive response to 12 (n = 110) and 24 (n = 85) weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training in older (>65 years) men and women. MEASUREMENTS: Lean body mass (DXA), type I and type II muscle fiber size (biopsy), leg strength (1-RM on leg press and leg extension), and physical function (chair-rise time) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of resistance-type exercise training. RESULTS: Lean body mass increased by 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (range: -3.3 to +5.4 kg; P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks of training. From 0 to 24 weeks, lean body mass increased by 1.1 ± 0.2 kg (range: -1.8 to +9.2 kg; P < .001). Type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 324 ± 137 μm(2) (range: -4458 to +3386 μm(2); P = .021), and 701 ± 137 μm(2) (range: -4041 to +3904 μm(2); P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 360 ± 157 μm(2) (range: -3531 to +3426 μm(2); P = .026) and 779 ± 161 μm(2) (range: -2728 to +3815 μm(2); P < .001). The 1-RM strength on the leg press and leg extension increased by 33 ± 2 kg (range: -36 to +87 kg; P < .001) and 20 ± 1 kg (range: -22 to +56 kg; P < .001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, leg press and leg extension 1-RM increased by 50 ± 3 kg (range: -28 to +145 kg; P < .001) and 29 ± 2 kg (range: -19 to +60 kg; P < .001). Chair-rise time decreased by 1.3 ± 0.4 seconds (range: +21.6 to -12.5 seconds; P = .003) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, chair-rise time decreased by 2.3 ± 0.4 seconds (range: +10.5 to -23.0 seconds; P < .001). Nonresponsiveness was not apparent in any subject, as a positive adaptive response on at least one training outcome was apparent in every subject. CONCLUSIONS: A large heterogeneity was apparent in the adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training when changes in lean body mass, muscle fiber size, strength, and physical function were assessed in older men and women. The level of responsiveness was strongly affected by the duration of the exercise intervention, with more positive responses following more prolonged exercise training. We conclude that there are no nonresponders to the benefits of resistance-type exercise training on lean body mass, fiber size, strength, or function in the older population. Consequently, resistance-type exercise should be promoted without restriction to support healthy aging in the older population. SN - 1538-9375 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25717010/There_Are_No_Nonresponders_to_Resistance_Type_Exercise_Training_in_Older_Men_and_Women_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -