Legionnaires' disease in France.Med Mal Infect. 2015 Mar; 45(3):65-71.MM
The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year.