Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe traumatic lung injury with respiratory failure.Am J Emerg Med. 2015 May; 33(5):658-62.AJ
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in managing acute respiratory distress syndrome had been accepted. Severe lung injury with respiratory failure is often encountered in trauma patients. We report our experience with the use of ECMO in severe traumatic lung injury.
Patients with severe traumatic lung injury that met the following criteria were candidates for ECMO: (1) severe hypoxemia, Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen (1.0) less than 60, and positive end-expiratory pressure greater than 10 cm H2O in spite of vigorous ventilation strategy; (2) irreversible CO2 retention with unstable hemodynamics; and (3) an initial arterial Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen (1.0) less than 60, where the pulmonary condition and hemodynamics rapidly deteriorated despite vigorous mechanical ventilation strategy.
Over 60 months, a total of 19 patients with severe traumatic lung injury who received ECMO management were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 38 years (25-58 years), the median injury severity score was 29 (25-34), the median admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 25 (21-36), and the median blood transfusion volume was 5500 mL (3500-13 000). There were 9 venovenous and 10 venoarterial types. The survival rate was 68.4% (13/19). The survivors were younger (30 vs 53 years; 21-39 vs 48-63). There were 6 mortalities (3 pneumonia, 2 coagulopathy, and 1 cardiac rupture with cardiac tamponade). There were 5 of 19 patients with pre-ECMO traumatic brain hemorrhage (3 survived and 2 mortalities). A total of 16 patients received heparinization with 5 mortalities.
The use of ECMO may offer an additional treatment modality in severe traumatic lung injury with respiratory failure that is unresponsive to optimal conventional ventilator support. Timely ECMO intervention is of value.