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Apiaceous vegetable consumption decreases PhIP-induced DNA adducts and increases methylated PhIP metabolites in the urine metabolome in rats.
J Nutr 2015; 145(3):442-51JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats.

METHODS

Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight(-1)) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed.

RESULTS

Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.0001), respectively] and of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (PhIP-detoxifying) by 24.5% (P = 0.0267). Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction.

CONCLUSIONS

Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP-DNA adducts may involve other pathways. Further investigation of the importance of PhIP methylation in carcinogen metabolism is warranted, given the inverse correlation of methylated PhIP metabolites with a biomarker of carcinogenesis and the detection of a novel methylated PhIP metabolite.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN trudo@umn.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25733458

Citation

Kim, Jae Kyeom, et al. "Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 3, 2015, pp. 442-51.
Kim JK, Gallaher DD, Chen C, et al. Apiaceous vegetable consumption decreases PhIP-induced DNA adducts and increases methylated PhIP metabolites in the urine metabolome in rats. J Nutr. 2015;145(3):442-51.
Kim, J. K., Gallaher, D. D., Chen, C., Yao, D., & Trudo, S. P. (2015). Apiaceous vegetable consumption decreases PhIP-induced DNA adducts and increases methylated PhIP metabolites in the urine metabolome in rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(3), pp. 442-51. doi:10.3945/jn.114.202622.
Kim JK, et al. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats. J Nutr. 2015;145(3):442-51. PubMed PMID: 25733458.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Apiaceous vegetable consumption decreases PhIP-induced DNA adducts and increases methylated PhIP metabolites in the urine metabolome in rats. AU - Kim,Jae Kyeom, AU - Gallaher,Daniel D, AU - Chen,Chi, AU - Yao,Dan, AU - Trudo,Sabrina P, Y1 - 2014/12/24/ PY - 2015/3/4/entrez PY - 2015/3/4/pubmed PY - 2015/4/29/medline KW - 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine KW - DNA adducts KW - N-methyltransferase KW - apiaceous vegetables KW - biotransformation enzymes KW - cruciferous vegetables KW - heterocyclic aromatic amines KW - metabolomics SP - 442 EP - 51 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight(-1)) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. RESULTS: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.0001), respectively] and of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (PhIP-detoxifying) by 24.5% (P = 0.0267). Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP-DNA adducts may involve other pathways. Further investigation of the importance of PhIP methylation in carcinogen metabolism is warranted, given the inverse correlation of methylated PhIP metabolites with a biomarker of carcinogenesis and the detection of a novel methylated PhIP metabolite. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25733458/Apiaceous_vegetable_consumption_decreases_PhIP_induced_DNA_adducts_and_increases_methylated_PhIP_metabolites_in_the_urine_metabolome_in_rats_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.114.202622 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -