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A high-protein breakfast induces greater insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses to a subsequent lunch meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
J Nutr. 2015 Mar; 145(3):452-8.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The previous meal modulates the postprandial glycemic responses to a subsequent meal; this is termed the second-meal phenomenon.

OBJECTIVE

This study examined the effects of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate breakfast meals on the metabolic and incretin responses after the breakfast and lunch meals.

METHODS

Twelve type 2 diabetic men and women [age: 21-55 y; body mass index (BMI): 30-40 kg/m(2)] completed two 7-d breakfast conditions consisting of 500-kcal breakfast meals as protein (35% protein/45% carbohydrate) or carbohydrate (15% protein/65% carbohydrate). On day 7, subjects completed an 8-h testing day. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed their respective breakfast followed by a standard 500-kcal high-carbohydrate lunch meal 4 h later. Blood samples were taken throughout the day for assessment of 4-h postbreakfast and 4-h postlunch total area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

RESULTS

Postbreakfast glucose and GIP AUCs were lower after the protein (17%) vs. after the carbohydrate (23%) condition (P < 0.05), whereas postbreakfast insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 AUCs were not different between conditions. A protein-rich breakfast may reduce the consequences of hyperglycemia in this population. Postlunch insulin, C-peptide, and GIP AUCs were greater after the protein condition vs. after the carbohydrate condition (second-meal phenomenon; all, P < 0.05), but postlunch AUCs were not different between conditions. The overall glucose, glucagon, and GLP-1 responses (e.g., 8 h) were greater after the protein condition vs. after the carbohydrate condition (all, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

In type 2 diabetic individuals, compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast, the consumption of a high-protein breakfast meal attenuates the postprandial glucose response and does not magnify the response to the second meal. Insulin, C-peptide, and GIP concentrations demonstrate the second-meal phenomenon and most likely aid in keeping the glucose concentrations controlled in response to the subsequent meal. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02180646 as NCT02180646.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and.Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and.Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and.Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and.Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and.Departments of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology and kanaleyj@missouri.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25733459

Citation

Park, Young-Min, et al. "A High-protein Breakfast Induces Greater Insulin and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Responses to a Subsequent Lunch Meal in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 3, 2015, pp. 452-8.
Park YM, Heden TD, Liu Y, et al. A high-protein breakfast induces greater insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses to a subsequent lunch meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. 2015;145(3):452-8.
Park, Y. M., Heden, T. D., Liu, Y., Nyhoff, L. M., Thyfault, J. P., Leidy, H. J., & Kanaley, J. A. (2015). A high-protein breakfast induces greater insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses to a subsequent lunch meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(3), 452-8. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.202549
Park YM, et al. A High-protein Breakfast Induces Greater Insulin and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Responses to a Subsequent Lunch Meal in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes. J Nutr. 2015;145(3):452-8. PubMed PMID: 25733459.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A high-protein breakfast induces greater insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses to a subsequent lunch meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes. AU - Park,Young-Min, AU - Heden,Timothy D, AU - Liu,Ying, AU - Nyhoff,Lauryn M, AU - Thyfault,John P, AU - Leidy,Heather J, AU - Kanaley,Jill A, Y1 - 2014/12/24/ PY - 2015/3/4/entrez PY - 2015/3/4/pubmed PY - 2015/4/29/medline KW - GIP KW - GLP-1 KW - glucagon KW - high carbohydrate KW - postprandial glucose KW - second-meal phenomenon KW - type 2 diabetes SP - 452 EP - 8 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 145 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The previous meal modulates the postprandial glycemic responses to a subsequent meal; this is termed the second-meal phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate breakfast meals on the metabolic and incretin responses after the breakfast and lunch meals. METHODS: Twelve type 2 diabetic men and women [age: 21-55 y; body mass index (BMI): 30-40 kg/m(2)] completed two 7-d breakfast conditions consisting of 500-kcal breakfast meals as protein (35% protein/45% carbohydrate) or carbohydrate (15% protein/65% carbohydrate). On day 7, subjects completed an 8-h testing day. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed their respective breakfast followed by a standard 500-kcal high-carbohydrate lunch meal 4 h later. Blood samples were taken throughout the day for assessment of 4-h postbreakfast and 4-h postlunch total area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). RESULTS: Postbreakfast glucose and GIP AUCs were lower after the protein (17%) vs. after the carbohydrate (23%) condition (P < 0.05), whereas postbreakfast insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 AUCs were not different between conditions. A protein-rich breakfast may reduce the consequences of hyperglycemia in this population. Postlunch insulin, C-peptide, and GIP AUCs were greater after the protein condition vs. after the carbohydrate condition (second-meal phenomenon; all, P < 0.05), but postlunch AUCs were not different between conditions. The overall glucose, glucagon, and GLP-1 responses (e.g., 8 h) were greater after the protein condition vs. after the carbohydrate condition (all, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetic individuals, compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast, the consumption of a high-protein breakfast meal attenuates the postprandial glucose response and does not magnify the response to the second meal. Insulin, C-peptide, and GIP concentrations demonstrate the second-meal phenomenon and most likely aid in keeping the glucose concentrations controlled in response to the subsequent meal. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02180646 as NCT02180646. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25733459/A_high_protein_breakfast_induces_greater_insulin_and_glucose_dependent_insulinotropic_peptide_responses_to_a_subsequent_lunch_meal_in_individuals_with_type_2_diabetes_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.114.202549 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -