Current recommended 25-hydroxyvitamin D targets for chronic kidney disease management may be too low.J Nephrol. 2016 Feb; 29(1):63-70.JN
It is uncertain whether increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients above those recommended by current guidelines result in progressive amelioration of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our objective was to identify a potential therapeutic 25-D target which optimally lowers plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) without producing excessive hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia in CKD.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 14,289 unselected stage 1-5 CKD patients from US primary care and nephrology practices utilizing a laboratory-based CKD clinical decision support service between September 2008 and May 2012. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma PTH, and serum 25-D, calcium, and phosphorus results were analyzed.
In CKD stages 3-5, progressively higher 25-D pentiles contained progressively lower mean PTH levels. Regression analysis of log PTH on 25-D was significant in all CKD stages with no evidence of a decreasing effect of 25-D to lower PTH until 25-D levels of 42-48 ng/ml. Progressively higher 25-D concentrations were not associated with increased rates of hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia.
We found evidence for an optimal level of 25-D above which suppression of PTH progressively diminishes. This level is more than twice that currently recommended for the general population. We found no association between these higher 25-D levels and hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia. Additional prospective trials seem appropriate to test the idea that 25-D levels around 40-50 ng/ml could be a safe and effective treatment target for secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD.