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Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.
J Nutr. 2015 Apr; 145(4):758-65.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

High blood pressure is a major health burden positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Flaxseed is a rich dietary source of α-linolenic acid, lignans, and fiber, with a number of positive health benefits on blood pressure.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of flaxseed consumption on blood pressure. Further, the influence of baseline blood pressure, type of flaxseed supplementation, and duration of flaxseed supplementation on blood pressure was explored.

METHOD

PubMed (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library (Central) were searched through July 2014 for studies in which humans supplemented their habitual diet with flaxseed or its extracts (i.e., oil, lignans, fiber) for ≥2 wk.

RESULTS

A total of 11 studies (14 trials) were included in the analysis. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for the mean difference in blood pressure. Results indicated that flaxseed supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure (-1.77 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.45, -0.09 mm Hg; P = 0.04) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.58 mm Hg; 95% CI: -2.64, -0.52 mm Hg; P = 0.003). These results were not influenced by categorization of participants into higher baseline blood pressure (≥130 mm Hg). An improvement in diastolic blood pressure was observed in subgroup analysis for consuming whole flaxseed (-1.93 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.65, -0.21 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and duration of consumption ≥12 wk (-2.17 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.44, -0.89 mm Hg; P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

The present meta-analysis suggests that consumption of flaxseed may lower blood pressure slightly. The beneficial potential of flaxseed to reduce blood pressure (especially diastolic blood pressure) may be greater when it is consumed as a whole seed and for a duration of >12 wk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Medicine and s.khalesi@griffith.edu.au.School of Allied Health Sciences, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.School of Allied Health Sciences, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25740909

Citation

Khalesi, Saman, et al. "Flaxseed Consumption May Reduce Blood Pressure: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Controlled Trials." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 4, 2015, pp. 758-65.
Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Nutr. 2015;145(4):758-65.
Khalesi, S., Irwin, C., & Schubert, M. (2015). Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(4), 758-65. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.205302
Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed Consumption May Reduce Blood Pressure: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Controlled Trials. J Nutr. 2015;145(4):758-65. PubMed PMID: 25740909.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. AU - Khalesi,Saman, AU - Irwin,Christopher, AU - Schubert,Matt, Y1 - 2015/03/04/ PY - 2014/10/07/received PY - 2015/02/02/accepted PY - 2015/3/6/entrez PY - 2015/3/6/pubmed PY - 2015/6/9/medline KW - blood pressure KW - flaxseed KW - hypertension KW - linseed KW - meta-analysis KW - systematic review SP - 758 EP - 65 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is a major health burden positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Flaxseed is a rich dietary source of α-linolenic acid, lignans, and fiber, with a number of positive health benefits on blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of flaxseed consumption on blood pressure. Further, the influence of baseline blood pressure, type of flaxseed supplementation, and duration of flaxseed supplementation on blood pressure was explored. METHOD: PubMed (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library (Central) were searched through July 2014 for studies in which humans supplemented their habitual diet with flaxseed or its extracts (i.e., oil, lignans, fiber) for ≥2 wk. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies (14 trials) were included in the analysis. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for the mean difference in blood pressure. Results indicated that flaxseed supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure (-1.77 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.45, -0.09 mm Hg; P = 0.04) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.58 mm Hg; 95% CI: -2.64, -0.52 mm Hg; P = 0.003). These results were not influenced by categorization of participants into higher baseline blood pressure (≥130 mm Hg). An improvement in diastolic blood pressure was observed in subgroup analysis for consuming whole flaxseed (-1.93 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.65, -0.21 mm Hg; P < 0.05) and duration of consumption ≥12 wk (-2.17 mm Hg; 95% CI: -3.44, -0.89 mm Hg; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggests that consumption of flaxseed may lower blood pressure slightly. The beneficial potential of flaxseed to reduce blood pressure (especially diastolic blood pressure) may be greater when it is consumed as a whole seed and for a duration of >12 wk. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25740909/Flaxseed_consumption_may_reduce_blood_pressure:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_of_controlled_trials_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.114.205302 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -