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Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers.
J Anal Toxicol. 2015 May; 39(4):251-61.JA

Abstract

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research Branch, NIDA IRP, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200 Room 05A-721, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, USA.Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research Branch, NIDA IRP, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200 Room 05A-721, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA Present address: Laboratoire de Psychologie des Pays de la Loire, Faculté de Psychologie, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research Branch, NIDA IRP, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200 Room 05A-721, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA Present address: Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research Branch, NIDA IRP, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200 Room 05A-721, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA mhuestis@intra.nida.nih.gov.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25745105

Citation

Desrosiers, Nathalie A., et al. "Smoked Cannabis' Psychomotor and Neurocognitive Effects in Occasional and Frequent Smokers." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 39, no. 4, 2015, pp. 251-61.
Desrosiers NA, Ramaekers JG, Chauchard E, et al. Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers. J Anal Toxicol. 2015;39(4):251-61.
Desrosiers, N. A., Ramaekers, J. G., Chauchard, E., Gorelick, D. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2015). Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 39(4), 251-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkv012
Desrosiers NA, et al. Smoked Cannabis' Psychomotor and Neurocognitive Effects in Occasional and Frequent Smokers. J Anal Toxicol. 2015;39(4):251-61. PubMed PMID: 25745105.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers. AU - Desrosiers,Nathalie A, AU - Ramaekers,Johannes G, AU - Chauchard,Emeline, AU - Gorelick,David A, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2015/03/04/ PY - 2015/3/7/entrez PY - 2015/3/7/pubmed PY - 2016/1/23/medline SP - 251 EP - 61 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 39 IS - 4 N2 - Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (<2x/week) cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. SN - 1945-2403 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25745105/Smoked_cannabis'_psychomotor_and_neurocognitive_effects_in_occasional_and_frequent_smokers_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/bkv012 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -