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Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease.

Abstract

Every year an estimated 42 million people worldwide suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussion. More severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently, large epidemiological studies have additionally identified MTBI as a risk factor for dementia. The role of MTBI in risk of PD or ALS is less well established. Repetitive MTBI and repetitive sub-concussive head trauma have been linked to increased risk for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is a unique neurodegenerative tauopathy first described in boxers but more recently described in a variety of contact sport athletes, military veterans, and civilians exposed to repetitive MTBI. Studies of repetitive MTBI and CTE have been limited by referral bias, lack of consensus clinical criteria for CTE, challenges of quantifying MTBI exposure, and potential for confounding. The prevalence of CTE is unknown and the amount of MTBI or sub-concussive trauma exposure necessary to produce CTE is unclear. This review will summarize the current literature regarding the epidemiology of MTBI, post-TBI dementia and Parkinson's disease, and CTE while highlighting methodological challenges and critical future directions of research in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Traumatic Brain Injury.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address: raquel.gardner@ucsf.edu.

    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, CA, United States; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, CA, United States; Departments of Epidemiology/Biostatistics and Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, CA, United States.

    Source

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 66:Pt B 2015 May pg 75-80

    MeSH

    Animals
    Autopsy
    Brain Injuries
    Humans
    Neurodegenerative Diseases
    Prevalence
    Risk
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25748121

    Citation

    Gardner, Raquel C., and Kristine Yaffe. "Epidemiology of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Disease." Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, vol. 66, no. Pt B, 2015, pp. 75-80.
    Gardner RC, Yaffe K. Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015;66(Pt B):75-80.
    Gardner, R. C., & Yaffe, K. (2015). Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 66(Pt B), pp. 75-80. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2015.03.001.
    Gardner RC, Yaffe K. Epidemiology of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Disease. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015;66(Pt B):75-80. PubMed PMID: 25748121.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. AU - Gardner,Raquel C, AU - Yaffe,Kristine, Y1 - 2015/03/05/ PY - 2014/12/31/received PY - 2015/02/25/revised PY - 2015/03/02/accepted PY - 2015/3/10/entrez PY - 2015/3/10/pubmed PY - 2016/3/12/medline KW - Chronic traumatic encephalopathy KW - Concussion KW - Epidemiology KW - Mild traumatic brain injury KW - Neurodegenerative disease KW - Traumatic brain injury SP - 75 EP - 80 JF - Molecular and cellular neurosciences JO - Mol. Cell. Neurosci. VL - 66 IS - Pt B N2 - Every year an estimated 42 million people worldwide suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussion. More severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-established risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recently, large epidemiological studies have additionally identified MTBI as a risk factor for dementia. The role of MTBI in risk of PD or ALS is less well established. Repetitive MTBI and repetitive sub-concussive head trauma have been linked to increased risk for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is a unique neurodegenerative tauopathy first described in boxers but more recently described in a variety of contact sport athletes, military veterans, and civilians exposed to repetitive MTBI. Studies of repetitive MTBI and CTE have been limited by referral bias, lack of consensus clinical criteria for CTE, challenges of quantifying MTBI exposure, and potential for confounding. The prevalence of CTE is unknown and the amount of MTBI or sub-concussive trauma exposure necessary to produce CTE is unclear. This review will summarize the current literature regarding the epidemiology of MTBI, post-TBI dementia and Parkinson's disease, and CTE while highlighting methodological challenges and critical future directions of research in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Traumatic Brain Injury. SN - 1095-9327 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25748121/Epidemiology_of_mild_traumatic_brain_injury_and_neurodegenerative_disease_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1044-7431(15)00030-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -