[Analysis of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in neonatal purulent meningitis].Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2015 Jan; 53(1):51-6.ZE
To study the clinical characteristics, pathogenic bacteria, and antibiotics resistance of neonatal purulent meningitis in order to provide the guide for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
A retrospective review was performed and a total of 112 cases of neonatal purulent meningitis (male 64, female 58) were identified in the neonatal intensive care unit of Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University seen from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013. The clinical information including pathogenic bacterial distribution, drug sensitivity, head imageology and therapeutic outcome were analyzed. Numeration data were shown in ratio and chi square test was applied for group comparison.
Among 112 cases, 46 were admitted from 2004 to 2008 and 66 from 2009 to 2013, 23 patients were preterm and 89 were term, 20 were early onset (occurring within 3 days of life) and 92 were late onset meningitis (occurring after 3 days of life). In 62 (55.4%) cases the pathogens were Gram-positive bacteria and in 50 (44.6%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The five most frequently isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (32 cases, 28.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS, 20 cases, 17.9%), Streptococcus (18 cases, 16.1%, Streptococcus agalactiae 15 cases), Enterococci (13 cases, 11.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (9 cases, 8.0%). Comparison of pathogenic bacterial distribution between 2004-2008 and 2009-2013 showed that Gram-positive bacteria accounted for more than 50% in both period. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium, followed by Streptococcus in last five years which was higher than the first five years (22.7% (15/66) vs. 6.5% (3/46), χ(2) = 5.278, P < 0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae was more common isolate in preterm infants than in term infants (13.0% (3/23) vs. 1.1% (1/89), χ(2) = 7.540, P < 0.05). Streptococcus (most were Streptococcus agalactiae) was the most common bacteria in early onset meningitis and higher than those in late onset meningitis (35.0% (7/20) vs. 12.0% (11/92), χ(2) = 4.872, P < 0.05). Drug sensitivity tests showed that all the Gram-positive bacterial isolates were sensitive to linezolid. Staphylococci were resistant to penicillin, and most of them were resistant to erythromycin, oxacillin and cefazolin; 77.8%of CNS isolates were methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. No Streptococcus and Enterococcus faecalis was resistant to penicillin. None of enterococci was resistant to vancomycin. Among the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, more than 40% of Escherichia coli were resistant to commonly used cephalosporins such as cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and all of them were sensitive to amikacin, cefoperazone sulbactam and imipenem. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were all resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftazidime, but none of them was resistant to piperacillin tazobactam and imipenem. Of the 112 patients, 69 were cured, 23 improved, 9 uncured and 11 died. There were 47 cases (42.0%) with poor prognosis, they had abnormal head imageology, severe complications and some cases died, 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients with meningitis caused by Streptococcus died.
Escherichia coli, CNS and Streptococcus are the predominant pathogens responsible for neonatal purulent meningitis over the past ten years. There were increasing numbers of cases with Streptococcus meningitis which are more common in early onset meningitis with adverse outcome, therefore careful attention should be paid in clinic. Linezolid should be used as a new choice in intractable neonatal purulent meningitis cases caused by gram positive bacteria.