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Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake by Irish Adults over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed.
J Nutr. 2015 May; 145(5):969-76.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Food fortification could be an effective method of increasing vitamin D intakes and preventing deficiency with minimal risk of excessive dosing.

OBJECTIVE

Secular trends in vitamin D intakes were examined over a 10-y period.

METHODS

We compared vitamin D intakes among 18- to 64-y-old adults from the base diet, fortified foods, and supplements in 2 nationally representative dietary surveys in 1999 and 2009 implemented using the same methodology.

RESULTS

There was a slight increase in the median (IQR) intake of vitamin D from 2.9 (3.2) to 3.5 (3.7) μg/d (mean ± SD, 4.3 ± 4.0 to 5.0 ± 6.4 μg). The median (IQR) intake from the base diet was 2.3 (1.6) μg/d in 1999 and 2.1 (1.8) μg/d in 2009. In vitamin D supplement users, median (IQR) intakes were 7.6 (6.7) and 8.7 (7.2) μg/d and the prevalence of inadequacy decreased from 67% to 57% in 2009. Although the consumption of vitamin D-containing supplements was similar in the 2 surveys (17% and 16%), the use of calcium-vitamin D supplements increased from 3% to 10% among women aged 50-64 y. The prevalence of fortified food consumption was also similar at 60%, and median (IQR) vitamin D intakes in consumers were 2.9 (2.2) and 3.7 (2.9) μg/d in 1999 and 2009, respectively. Mathematical modeling of food fortification using modified vitamin D composition data showed that there is potential to increase vitamin D intakes at the lower end of the distribution, without increasing the risk of exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

CONCLUSIONS

We report small increases in vitamin D intakes among Irish adults over a decade of focus on vitamin D and in the context of a voluntary fortification policy. Strategic management of vitamin D in the food supply is required to yield measurable benefits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Vitamin D Research Group, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences.School of Food and Nutritional Sciences.Vitamin D Research Group, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Medicine, and.Vitamin D Research Group, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Irish Center for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland m.kiely@ucc.ie.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25761500

Citation

Black, Lucinda J., et al. "Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake By Irish Adults Over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 5, 2015, pp. 969-76.
Black LJ, Walton J, Flynn A, et al. Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake by Irish Adults over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed. J Nutr. 2015;145(5):969-76.
Black, L. J., Walton, J., Flynn, A., Cashman, K. D., & Kiely, M. (2015). Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake by Irish Adults over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(5), 969-76. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.209106
Black LJ, et al. Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake By Irish Adults Over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed. J Nutr. 2015;145(5):969-76. PubMed PMID: 25761500.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake by Irish Adults over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed. AU - Black,Lucinda J, AU - Walton,Janette, AU - Flynn,Albert, AU - Cashman,Kevin D, AU - Kiely,Mairead, Y1 - 2015/03/11/ PY - 2014/12/19/received PY - 2015/02/20/accepted PY - 2015/3/13/entrez PY - 2015/3/13/pubmed PY - 2015/7/4/medline KW - Irish adults KW - dietary modeling KW - vitamin D fortification KW - vitamin D intakes KW - vitamin D supplements SP - 969 EP - 76 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Food fortification could be an effective method of increasing vitamin D intakes and preventing deficiency with minimal risk of excessive dosing. OBJECTIVE: Secular trends in vitamin D intakes were examined over a 10-y period. METHODS: We compared vitamin D intakes among 18- to 64-y-old adults from the base diet, fortified foods, and supplements in 2 nationally representative dietary surveys in 1999 and 2009 implemented using the same methodology. RESULTS: There was a slight increase in the median (IQR) intake of vitamin D from 2.9 (3.2) to 3.5 (3.7) μg/d (mean ± SD, 4.3 ± 4.0 to 5.0 ± 6.4 μg). The median (IQR) intake from the base diet was 2.3 (1.6) μg/d in 1999 and 2.1 (1.8) μg/d in 2009. In vitamin D supplement users, median (IQR) intakes were 7.6 (6.7) and 8.7 (7.2) μg/d and the prevalence of inadequacy decreased from 67% to 57% in 2009. Although the consumption of vitamin D-containing supplements was similar in the 2 surveys (17% and 16%), the use of calcium-vitamin D supplements increased from 3% to 10% among women aged 50-64 y. The prevalence of fortified food consumption was also similar at 60%, and median (IQR) vitamin D intakes in consumers were 2.9 (2.2) and 3.7 (2.9) μg/d in 1999 and 2009, respectively. Mathematical modeling of food fortification using modified vitamin D composition data showed that there is potential to increase vitamin D intakes at the lower end of the distribution, without increasing the risk of exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. CONCLUSIONS: We report small increases in vitamin D intakes among Irish adults over a decade of focus on vitamin D and in the context of a voluntary fortification policy. Strategic management of vitamin D in the food supply is required to yield measurable benefits. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25761500/Small_Increments_in_Vitamin_D_Intake_by_Irish_Adults_over_a_Decade_Show_That_Strategic_Initiatives_to_Fortify_the_Food_Supply_Are_Needed_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.114.209106 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -