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Teaching our children when to eat: how parental feeding practices inform the development of emotional eating--a longitudinal experimental design.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May; 101(5):908-13.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Emotional eating in children has been related to the consumption of energy-dense foods and obesity, but the development of emotional eating in young children is poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES

We evaluated whether emotional eating can be induced in 5-7-y-old children in the laboratory and assessed whether parental use of overly controlling feeding practices at 3-5 y of age predicts a greater subsequent tendency for children to eat under conditions of mild stress at ages 5-7 y.

DESIGN

Forty-one parent-child dyads were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study, which involved parents and children being observed consuming a standard lunch, completing questionnaire measures of parental feeding practices, participating in a research procedure to induce child emotion (or a control procedure), and observing children's consumption of snack foods.

RESULTS

Children at ages 5-7 y who were exposed to a mild emotional stressor consumed significantly more calories from snack foods in the absence of hunger than did children in a control group. Parents who reported the use of more food as a reward and restriction of food for health reasons with their children at ages 3-5 y were more likely to have children who ate more under conditions of negative emotion at ages 5-7 y.

CONCLUSIONS

Parents who overly control children's food intake may unintentionally teach children to rely on palatable foods to cope with negative emotions. Additional research is needed to evaluate the implications of these findings for children's food intake and weight outside of the laboratory setting. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom (CVF); the School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom (EH); and the School of Psychology, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom (JMB).From the School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom (CVF); the School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom (EH); and the School of Psychology, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom (JMB).From the School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom (CVF); the School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom (EH); and the School of Psychology, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom (JMB).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25787999

Citation

Farrow, Claire V., et al. "Teaching Our Children when to Eat: How Parental Feeding Practices Inform the Development of Emotional Eating--a Longitudinal Experimental Design." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 101, no. 5, 2015, pp. 908-13.
Farrow CV, Haycraft E, Blissett JM. Teaching our children when to eat: how parental feeding practices inform the development of emotional eating--a longitudinal experimental design. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(5):908-13.
Farrow, C. V., Haycraft, E., & Blissett, J. M. (2015). Teaching our children when to eat: how parental feeding practices inform the development of emotional eating--a longitudinal experimental design. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(5), 908-13. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.103713
Farrow CV, Haycraft E, Blissett JM. Teaching Our Children when to Eat: How Parental Feeding Practices Inform the Development of Emotional Eating--a Longitudinal Experimental Design. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(5):908-13. PubMed PMID: 25787999.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Teaching our children when to eat: how parental feeding practices inform the development of emotional eating--a longitudinal experimental design. AU - Farrow,Claire V, AU - Haycraft,Emma, AU - Blissett,Jackie M, Y1 - 2015/03/18/ PY - 2014/11/19/received PY - 2015/02/09/accepted PY - 2015/3/20/entrez PY - 2015/3/20/pubmed PY - 2015/7/29/medline KW - child emotional eating KW - child feeding KW - longitudinal KW - obesity KW - snack food SP - 908 EP - 13 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 101 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Emotional eating in children has been related to the consumption of energy-dense foods and obesity, but the development of emotional eating in young children is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether emotional eating can be induced in 5-7-y-old children in the laboratory and assessed whether parental use of overly controlling feeding practices at 3-5 y of age predicts a greater subsequent tendency for children to eat under conditions of mild stress at ages 5-7 y. DESIGN: Forty-one parent-child dyads were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study, which involved parents and children being observed consuming a standard lunch, completing questionnaire measures of parental feeding practices, participating in a research procedure to induce child emotion (or a control procedure), and observing children's consumption of snack foods. RESULTS: Children at ages 5-7 y who were exposed to a mild emotional stressor consumed significantly more calories from snack foods in the absence of hunger than did children in a control group. Parents who reported the use of more food as a reward and restriction of food for health reasons with their children at ages 3-5 y were more likely to have children who ate more under conditions of negative emotion at ages 5-7 y. CONCLUSIONS: Parents who overly control children's food intake may unintentionally teach children to rely on palatable foods to cope with negative emotions. Additional research is needed to evaluate the implications of these findings for children's food intake and weight outside of the laboratory setting. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25787999/Teaching_our_children_when_to_eat:_how_parental_feeding_practices_inform_the_development_of_emotional_eating__a_longitudinal_experimental_design_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -